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2020年考研英语(二)真题

来源:www.xmdxkaoyan.com 作者:群贤厦大考研网 浏览:230 次 发布时间:2019/12/20

2020年的考研初试已落下帷幕,各个科目的考研真题以及答案解析也已新鲜出炉,不管考得如何,只要你认真待之,就无后悔可言,因为它已成为你人生中不可或缺的宝贵经历之一,不时回忆起,也会为那个为了梦想坚持、努力的自己骄傲。下面,群贤厦大考研网就为各位考生整理发布2020年各个科目的真题。

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2020年考研英语(二)真题


Section I Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D

  on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  Being a good parent is, of course, what every parent would like to be. But defining what it

  means to be a good parent is undoubtedly very 1 , particularly since children respond differently

  to the same style of parenting. A calm, rule-following child might respond better to a different sort

  of parenting than, 2 , a younger sibling.

  3 , There’s another sort of parent that s a bit easier to 4 : a patient parent. Children of every

  age benefit from patient parenting. Still, 5 every parent would like to be patient, this is no easy 6.

  Sometimes parents get exhausted and frustrated and are unable to maintain a 7 and composed style

  with their kids. I understand this.

  You’re only human, and sometimes your kids can 8 you just a little too far. And then the 9

  happens: You lose your patience and either scream at your kids or say something that was a bit too

  10 and does nobody any good. You wish that you could 11 the clock and start over, We’ve all been

  there:

  12, even though it’s common, it’s important to keep in mind that in a single moment of

  fatigue. you can say something to your child that you may 13 for a long time. This may not only

  do damage t0 your relationship with. your child but also 14 your child’s self-esteem.

  If you consistently lose your 15 with your kids. then you are inadvertently modeling a lack of

  emotional control for your kids. We are all becoming increasingly aware of the 16 of modeling

  tolerance and patience for the younger generation. This is a skill that will help them all throughout

  life. In fact, the ability to emotionally regulate or maintain emotional control when 17 by stress is

  one of the most important of all life’s skills

  Certainly, it’s incredibly 18 to maintain patience at all times with your children. A more

  practical goal is to try, to the best of your ability, to be as tolerant and composed as you can when

  faced with 19 situations involving your children. I can promise you this: As a result of working

  toward this goal. you and your children will benefit and 20 from stressful moments feeling better

  physically and emotionally.

  1. [A] tedious [B] pleasant [C] instructive [D] tricky

  2. [A] in addition [B] for example [C] at once [D] by accident

  3. [A] fortunately [B] occasionally [C] accordingly [D] eventually

  4. [A] amuse [B] assist [C] describe [D] train

  5. [A] while [B] because [C] unless [D] once

  6. [A] answer [B] task [C] choice [D] access

  7. [A] tolerant [B] formal [C] rigid [D] critical

  8. [A] move [B] drag [C] push [D] send

  9. [A] mysterious [B] illogical [C] suspicious [D] inevitable

  10. [A] boring [B] naive [C] harsh [D] vague

  11. [A] turn back [B] take apart [C] set aside [D] cover up

  12. [A] overall [B] instead [C] however [D] otherwise

  13. [A] like [B] miss [C] believe [D] regret

  14. [A] raise [B] affect [C] justify [D] reflect

  15. [A] time [B] bond [C] race [D] cool

  16. [A] nature [B] secret [C] importance [D] context

  17.[A] cheated [B] defeated [C] confused [D] confronted

  18. [A] terrible [B] hard [C] strange [D] wrong

  19. [A] trying [B] changing [C] exciting [D] surprising

  20.[A] hide [B] emerge [C] withdraw [D] escape

  Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A,B,C or

  D.Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.(40 points)

  Text 1

  Rats and other animals need to be highly at tuned to social signals from others so that can

  identify friends to cooperate with and enemies to avoid. To find out if this extends to non-living

  beings, Loleh Quinn at the University of California, San Diego, and her colleagues tested whether

  rats can detect social signals from robotic rats.

  They housed eight adult rats with two types of robotic rat—one social and one asocial—for 5

  our days. The robots rats were quite minimalist, resembling a chunkier version of a computer

  mouse with wheels-to move around and colorful markings.

  During the experiment, the social robot rat followed the living rats around, played with the

  same toys, and opened caged doors to let trapped rats escape. Meanwhile, the asocial robot simply

  moved forwards and backwards and side to side

  Next, the researchers trapped the robots in cages and gave the rats the opportunity to release

  them by pressing a lever.

  Across 18 trials each, the living rats were 52 percent more likely on average to set the social

  robot free than the asocial one. This suggests that the rats perceived the social robot as a genuine

  social being. They may have bonded more with the social robot because it displayed behaviours

  like communal exploring and playing. This could lead to the rats better remembering having freed

  it earlier, and wanting the robot to return the favour when they get trapped, says Quinn.

  The readiness of the rats to befriend the social robot was surprising given its minimal design.

  The robot was the same size as a regular rat but resembled a simple plastic box on wheels.“We’d

  assumed we’d have to give it a moving head and tail, facial features, and put a scene on it to make

  it smell like a real rat, but that wasn’t necessary," says Janet Wiles at the University of Queensland

  in Australia, who helped with the research.

  The finding shows how sensitive rats are to social cues, even when they come from basic

  robots. Similarly, children tend to treat robots as if they are fellow beings, even when they display

  only simple social signals.“ We humans seem to be fascinated by robots, and it turns out other

  animals are too,”says Wiles.

  21. Quinn and her colleagues conducted a test to see if rats can .

  [A] pickup social signals from non-living rats

  [B] distinguish a friendly rat from a hostile one

  [C] attain sociable traits through special training

  [D] send out warming messages to their fellow

  22. What did the social robot do during the experiment?

  [A] It followed the social robot.

  [B] It played with some toys.

  [C] It set the trapped Tats free.

  [D]It moved around alone.

  23. According to Quinn, the rats released the social robot because they .

  [A] tried to practice a means of escape

  [B] expected it to do the same in return

  [C] wanted to display their intelligence

  [D]considered that an interesting game

  24. James Wiles notes that rats .

  [A]can remember other rat’s facial features

  [B] differentiate smells better than sizes

  [C] respond more to cations than to looks

  [D]can be scared by a plastic box on wheels

  25. It can be learned from the text that rats .

  [A]appear to be adaptable to new surroundings

  (B] are more socially active than other animals

  [C] behave differently from children in socializing

  [PD]are more sensitive to social cues than expected

  Text 2

  It is fashionable today to bash Big Business. And there is one issue on which the many critics

  agree: CEO pay. We hear that CEOs are paid too much (or too much relative to workers), or that

  they rig others’ pay, or that their pay is insufficiently related to positive outcomes. But the more

  likely truth is CEO pay is largely caused by intense competition.

  It is true that CEO pay has gone up—top ones may make 300 times the pay of typical

  workers on average, and since the mid-1970s, CEO pay for large publicly traded American

  corporations has, by varying estimates, gone up by about 500%. The typical CEO of a top

  American corporation—from the 350 largest such companies—now makes about $18.9 million a

  year.

  While individual cases of overpayment definitely exist, in general, the determinants of CEO

  pay are not so mysterious and not so mired in corruption. In fact, overall CEO compensation for

  the top companies rises pretty much. In lockstep with the value of those companies on the stock

  market.

  The best model for understanding the growth of CEO pay, though, is that of limited CEO

  talent in a world where business opportunities for the top firms are growing rapidly. The efforts of

  America’s highest-earning 1% have been one of the more dynamic elements of the global

  economy. It’s not popular to say, but one reason their pay has gone up so much is that CEOs really

  have upped their game relative to many other workers in the U.S. economy.

  Today’s CEO, at least for major American firms, must have many more skills than simply

  being able to “run the company.” CEOs must have a good sense of financial markets and maybe

  even how the company should trade in them. They also need better public relations skills than

  their predecessors, as the costs of even a minor slipup can be significant. Then there’s the fact that

  large American companies are much more globalized than ever before, with supply chains spread

  across a larger number of countries. To lead in that system requires knowledge that is fairly

  mind-boggling.

  There is yet another trend: virtually all major American companies are becoming tech

  companies, one way or another. An agribusiness company, for instance, may focus on R&D in

  highly IT-intensive areas such as genome sequencing. Similarly, it is hard to do a good job running

  the Walt Disney Company just by picking good movie scripts and courting stars; you also need to

  build a firm capable of creating significant CGI products for animated movies at the highest levels

  of technical sophistication and with many frontier innovations along the way.

  On top of all of this, major CEOs still have to do the job they have always done—which

  includes motivating employees, serving as an internal role model, helping to define and extend a

  corporate culture, understanding the internal accounting, and presenting budgets and business

  plans to the board. Good CEOs are some of the world’s most potent creators and have some of the

  very deepest skills of understanding.

  26. which of the following has contributed to CEO pay rise?

  A. The growth in the number of cooperations

  B. The general pay rise with a better economy

  C. Increased business opportunities for top firms

  D. Close cooperation among leading economics

  27. Compared with their predecessors, today’s CEOs are required to__.

  A. foster a stronger sense of teamwork

  B. finance more research and development

  C. establish closer ties with tech companies

  D. operate more globalized companies

  28. CEO pay has been rising since the 1970s despite__.

  A. continual internal opposition

  B. strict corporate governance

  C. conservative business strategies

  D. repeated governance warnings

  29. High CEO pay can be justified by the fact that it helps__.

  A. confirm the status of CEOs

  B. motive inside candidates

  C. boost the efficiency of CEOs

  D. increase corporate value

  30. The most suitable title for this text would be__.

  A. CEOs Are Not Overpaid

  B. CEO Pay: Past and Present

  C. CEOs’ Challenges of Today

  D. CEO Traits: Not Easy to Define

  Text 3

  Madrid was hailed as a public health beacon last November when it rolled out ambitious

  restrictions on the most polluting cars. Seven months and one election day later, a new

  conservative city council suspended enforcement of the clean air zone, a first step toward its

  possible demise.

  Mayor Jose Luis Martínez -Almeida made opposition to the zone a centrepiece of his election

  campaign, despite its success in improving air quality. A judge has now overruled the city's

  decision to stop levying fines, ordering them reinstated. But with legal battles ahead, the zone's

  future looks uncertain at best.

  Among other weaknesses, the measures cities must employ when left to tackle dirty air on

  their own are politically contentious, and therefore vulnerable. That’s because they inevitably put

  the costs of cleaning the air on to individual drivers—who must pay fees or buy better vehicles—

  rather than on to the car manufacturers whose cheating is the real cause of our toxic pollution.

  It’s not hard to imagine a similar reversal happening in London. The new ultra-low emission

  zone (Ulez) is likely to be a big issue in next year's mayoral election. And if Sadiq Khan wins and

  extends it to the North and South Circular roads in 2021 as he intends, it is sure to spark intense

  opposition from the far larger number of motorists who will then be affected.

  It's not that measures such as London’s Ulez are useless. Far from it. Local officials are using

  the levers that are available to them to safeguard residents' health in the face of a serious threat.

  The zones do deliver some improvements to air quality, and the science tells us that means real

  health benefits - fewer heart attacks, stokes and premature births, less cancer, dementia and asthma.

  Fewer untimely deaths.

  But mayors and councilors can only do so much about a problem that is far bigger than any

  one city or town. They are acting because national governments — Britain’s and others across

  Europe—have failed to do so.

  Restrictions that keep highly polluting cars out of certain areas—city centres,“school streets”,

  even individual roads-are a response to the absence of a larger effort to properly enforce existing

  regulations and require auto companies to bring their vehicles into compliance. Wales has

  introduced special low speed limits to minimise pollution. We re doing everything but insist that

  manufacturers clean up their cars.

  31. Which of the following is true about Madrid’s clean air zone?

  [A] Its effects are questionable

  [B] It has been opposed by a judge

  [C] It needs tougher enforcement

  [D] Its fate is yet to be decided

  32. Which is considered a weakness of the city-level measures to tackle dirty air?

  [A] They are biased against car manufacturers.

  [B] They prove impractical for city councils.

  [C] They are deemed too mild for politicians.

  [D] They put too much burden on individual motorists.

  33. The author believes that the extension of London’s Ulez will .

  [A] arouse strong resistance.

  [B] ensure Khan’s electoral success.

  [C] improve the city’s traffic.

  [D] discourage car manufacturing.

  34. Who does the author think should have addressed the problem?

  [A] Local residents

  [B] Mayors.

  [C] Councilors.

  [D] National governments.

  35. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that auto companies .

  [A] will raise low-emission car production

  [B] should be forced to follow regulations

  [C] will upgrade the design of their vehicles

  [D] should be put under public supervision

  Text 4

  Now that members of Generation Z are graduating college this spring—the most

  commonly- accepted definition says this generation was born after 1995, give or take a year—the

  attention has been rising steadily in recent weeks. GenZs are about to hit the streets looking for

  work in a labor market that’s tighter than its been in decades. And employers are planning on

  hiring about 17 percent more new graduates for jobs in the U.S. this year than last, according to a

  survey conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers. Everybody wants to

  know how the people who will soon inhabit those empty office cubicles will differ from those who

  came before them.

  If “entitled” is the most common adjective, fairly or not, applied to millennials (those born

  between 1981 and 1995), the catchwords for Generation Z are practical and cautious. According to

  the career counselors and experts who study them, Generation Zs are clear-eyed, economic

  pragmatists. Despite graduating into the best economy in the past 50 years, Gen Zs know what an

  economic train wreck looks like. They were impressionable kids during the crash of 2008, when

  many of their parents lost their jobs or their life savings or both. They aren’t interested in taking

  any chances. The booming economy seems to have done little to assuage this underlying

  generational sense of anxious urgency, especially for those who have college debt. College loan

  balances in the U.S. now stand at a record $1.5 trillion, according to the Federal Reserve.

  One survey from Accenture found that 88 percent of graduating seniors this year chose their

  major with a job in mind. In a 2019 survey of University of Georgia students, meanwhile, the

  career office found the most desirable trait in a future employer was the ability to offer secure

  employment (followed by professional development and training, and then inspiring purpose). Job

  security or stability was the second most important career goal (work-life balance was number

  one), followed by a sense of being dedicated to a cause or to feel good about serving the greater

  good.

  36. Generation Zs graduating college this spring________.

  [A] are recognized for their abilities

  [B] are in favor of job offers

  [C] are optimistic about the labor market

  [D] are drawing growing public attention

  37. Generation Zs are keenly aware________.

  [A] what a tough economic situation is like

  [B] what their parents expect of them

  [C] how they differ from past generations

  [D] how valuable a counselor’s advice is

  38. The word“assuage”(line 9, para 2) is closet in meaning to________.

  [A] define

  [B] relieve

  [C] maintain

  [D] deepen

  39. It can be learned from Paragraph 3 that Generation Zs________.

  [A] care little about their job performance

  [B] give top priority to professional training

  [C] think it hard to achieve work-life balance

  [D] have a clear idea about their future job

  40. Michelsen thinks that compared with millennials, Generation Zs are________.

  [A] less realistic

  [B] less adventurous

  [C]more diligent

  [D] more generous


  Part B

  Directions:

  Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from

  the list A-G for each numbered paragraphs (41-45). There are two extra subheadings which you do

  not need to use. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  [A] Give compliments, just not too many.

  [B] Put on a good face, always.

  [C] Tailor your interactions.

  [D] Spend time with everyone.

  [E] Reveal, don’t hide information.

  [F] Slow down and listen.

  [G] Put yourselves in others’ shoes.

  Five Ways to Win Over Everyone in the Office

  Is it possible to like everyone in your office? Think about how tough it is to get together 15

  people, much less 50, who all get along perfectly. But unlike in friendships, you need coworkers.

  You work with them every day and you depend on them just as they depend on you. Here are

  some ways that you can get the whole office on your side.

  41.__________

  If you have a bone to pick with someone in your workplace, you may try stay tight-lipped

  around them. But you won’t be helping either one of you. A Harvard Business School study found

  that observers consistently rated those who were frank about themselves more highly, while those