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    2020年考研英语(一)真题答案解析

    来源:www.fiveyearsblog.com 笔者:群贤厦大考研网 浏览:458 先后 通告时间:2019/12/20

    2020年之考研初试已落下帷幕,各国学科的考研真题以及答案解析也已非常出炉,无论考得如何,只要你认真待之,就无悔可言,因为她已变成你人生中必不可少的珍贵经验之一,不时回忆起,也会为那个为了梦想坚持、闻鸡起舞的大团结骄傲。下,群贤厦大考研网就为各位考生整理发布2020年各个学科的真题。



    2020年考研英语(一)真题答案解析


    Section I Use of English

    Directions

    Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

    Even if families are less likely to sit down to eat together than was once the case, millions of Britons will none the less have partaken this weekend of one of the nation's great traditions: the Sunday roast. __1__ a cold winter's day, few culinary pleasures can __2__it. Yet as we report now, the food police are determined that this __3__ should be rendered yet another guilty pleasure __4__ to damage our health.

    The Food Standards Authority (FSA) has __5__ a public warning about the risks of a compound called acrylamide that forms in some foods cooked __6__ high temperatures.This means that people should __7__ crisping their roast potatoes, spurn thin-crust pizzas and only __8__ toast their bread. But where is the evidence to support such alarmist advice? __9__ studies have shown that acrylamide can cause neurological damage in mice, there is no __10__ evidence that it causes cancer in humans.

    Scientists say the compound is "__11__ to be carcinogenic" but have no hard scientific proof. __12__ the precautionary principle, it could be argued that it is __13__ to follow the FSA advice. __14__, it was rumored that smoking caused cancer for years before the evidence was found to prove a __15__.

    Doubtless a piece of boiled beef can always be __16__ up on Sunday alongside some steamed vegetables,without the Yorkshire pudding and no wine. But would life be worth living? __17__, the FSA says it is not telling people to cut out roast foods __18__, but to reduce their lifetime intake. However, their __19__ risks coming across as exhortation and nannying. Constant health scares just __20__ with no one listening.

    1. A In B Towards C On D Till

    2. A match B express C satisfy D influence

    3. A patience B enjoyment C surprise D concern

    4. A intensified B privileged C compelled D guaranteed

    5. A issued B received C ignored D canceled

    6. A under B at C for D by

    7. A forget B regret C finish D avoid

    8. A partially B regularly C easily D initially

    9. A Unless B Since C If D While

    10. A secondary B external C inconclusive D negative

    11. A insufficient B bound C likely D slow

    12. A On the basis of B At the cost of C In addition to D In contrast to

    13. A interesting B advisable C urgent D fortunate

    14. A As usual B In particular C By definition D After all

    15. A resemblance B combination C connection D pattern

    16. A made B served C saved D used

    17. A To be fair B For instance C To be brief D in general

    18. A reluctantly B entirely C gradually D carefully

    19. A promise B experience C campaign D competition

    20. A follow up B pick up C open up D end up

    分析:

    当年完形填空的贡献度较前两年略难,虽然话题不难理解,但不易把握上下文的头脑。要求对文章内容有宏观和精准的把握才能做好。重要内容讲的是虽然烤肉之类的饭菜是会对健康带来危害,咱对那些健康方面的惊人也不行过度恐慌。属于比较生活之专题。下我们一起来看一下答案及解析。

    1.【答案】C On

    【分析】这里考察介词词义辨析。On a cold winter's day意思是在一番寒冷冬日。介词on后来加具体的某一天;in后来加一段日子,例如in winterin 2002;toward表面方向,不与时间搭配;till意思是直到,例如till tomorrowtill next week,与句意不符。故正确答案为on

    2.【答案】A match

    【分析】这里考察动词词义辨析。文章的首段首句提到:即使家庭成员不太可能经常坐下来一起吃饭,但数百万英国人将在这个星期出庭这个国家最光辉的人情活动之一:周末烤肉。On a cold winter's day, few culinary pleasures can __2__it. 在一番寒冷的冬日,很少有什么乐趣与之匹配。match 匹配。express发挥。satisfy满足,满意;确信;符合。influence影响。

    3.【答案】B enjoyment

    【分析】这里考察上下文逻辑关系。上文说到周末烤肉是一项开心的宣传。后来文Yet开展语义转折:然而正如现在报道的那样,食品卫生机构认为这种 3 会导致另一种有罪的欢乐 4 损害我们的正常。enjoyment乐趣与上文pleasures和下文another pleasures互为关联信息。patience耐心,耐性。surprise天伦之乐。concern关注。

    4.【答案】D guaranteed

    【分析】 这里考察非谓语动词做后置定语的用法。空格所在句指出:这种快乐会导致另一种有罪的欢乐 4 损害我们的正常。 guaranteed有合同的,永恒的,填入空格处意为:这种快乐会导致另一种有罪的欢乐,确认会损害我们的正常。 intensified增长,深化; privileged享有特权,专用,批准;compelled强迫。

    5.【答案】A issued

    【分析】这里考察词义辨析。The Food Standards Authority (FSA) has __5__ a public warning... 食品标准管理局 一项公开的警示... issued发挥,通告,发出;received接受,收到; ignored忽视,忽视;canceled取消。issued a public warning发出一项公开的警示符合文意。

    6.【答案】B at

    【分析】这里考察介词辨析。in some foods cooked __6__ high temperatures. under...;for为了;因为;对于; by旁边; 穿过; 鉴于; 途经。

    7.【答案】D avoid

    【分析】这里考察上下文逻辑关系。7空句首this mean代词this指代上文高温炙烤的饭菜里会有化学复合物有害人体身体健康。于是下文提出建议人们应当 7 炸土豆,不吃薄皮披萨并且...7空同时也与reject结合语义并列的联络,故avoid是的。forget忘记;regret 后悔;finish形成。

    8.【答案】A partially

    【分析】这里考察词义辨析+上下文语境。...and only__8__ toast their bread. 8空前文说到建议人们不吃炸土豆,薄皮披萨或者只是 8 烤面包。partially局部地,偶尔地;regularly有规律地; easily 轻而易举地;initially早期地。故A分选正确。

    9.【答案】D While

    【分析】这里考察上下文逻辑关系+逻辑连接词辨析。 __9__ studies have shown that acrylamide can cause neurological damage in mice, there is no __10__ evidence that it causes cancer in humans. 9 研讨表明丙烯酰胺可引起小鼠神经损伤,但是没有 10 证据说明它会导致人类患癌症。内外句为转折/对待/让步的逻辑关系,故选择while表示虽然,尽管。Unless除非,表面条件的逻辑关系;Since因为,表面因果逻辑;If如果,表面条件的逻辑关系。

    10.【答案】C conclusive

    【分析】这里考察词义辨析+上下文语境。 9 研讨表明丙烯酰胺可引起小鼠神经损伤,但是没有 10 证据说明它会导致人类患癌症。conclusive竞争性的; 相信的; 无疑的

    secondary其次之,中等的;间接的; external内在的,表的; 表上的; 外用的; 外国的; negative消极的,否认的。

    11.【答案】C likely

    【分析】这里考察固定搭配。be likely to 可能。insufficient 不足的,缺乏的;bound捆绑的,束缚的,有义务的;slow舒缓的。

    12.【答案】A On the basis of

    【分析】这里考察短语辨析+上下文逻辑。__12__ the precautionary principle, it could be argued that it is __13__ to follow the FSA advice. 12 预防性原则,可以说遵循FSA的提议是 13 On the basis of...为基础,根据,按照;At the cost of...为市场价;In addition to...对内; In contrast to与之相对,相反。

    13.【答案】B advisable

    【分析】这里考察形容词词义辨析。 根据预防性原则,可以说遵循FSA的提议是 13 interesting诙谐的; advisable明智的,优点的; urgent紧急的; fortunate侥幸的,侥幸的。

    14.【答案】D After all

    【分析】着眼逻辑关系。原文中上一句说基于预防原则,可以认为最好遵循FSA的提议。成本句说在有证据证明吸烟与癌症之间的联络之前,吸烟导致癌症的传达就已经流传多年了。重组选项分析,As usual像以往一样,In particular尤其,特别,By definition根据定义,After all 毕竟,只有After all符合文意。

    15.【答案】C connection

    【分析】主题考察动宾搭配,重组语境和句子成分理解,此间的名词放在prove“证明后面,完全处在不定式中做主语补足语说明主语evidence,此间证据有道是是关系出来(吸烟和肺癌)有关系之,故选择connectionResemblance相似,combination重组,pattern分立式,平均不符合。

    16.【答案】B served

    【分析】主题考察主谓搭配,这里为被动语态,和主语a piece of boiled beef 结合实际上的动宾关系,句意毫无疑问,一片煮熟的猪肉总能在周日和一些蒸蔬菜一起__16__”。此间served up 表示上菜,头上正和文意。而其余选择made制造,saved节约,used采取,平均不符合。

    17.【答案】A To be fair

    【分析】主题考察主谓搭配,上一句说但是生命值得过下去吗?”成本句话说,FSA表示,其它并没有告诉人们....不吃烘焙食品,可见后文并没有对上文进行举例(for instance)或总结(To be brief)或表示经常发生之事体(in general),故,有道是选择顺承关系的To be fair

    18.【答案】B entirely

    【分析】这里考察副词的修饰关系。成本句话句意为FSA表示,其它并没有告诉人们不吃烘焙食品__18__”。重组各选项分析:reluctantly不愿意地,entirely总体地,gradually逐渐地,carefully小心谨慎地,能跟前面的否定词not呼应使用表示一种部分否定的,只能是entirely才合适,not ...entirely表示并未完全...”

    19.【答案】C campaign

    【分析】主题考察主谓搭配。根据原文语境然而,她们(FSA)...有高风险给人一种劝诱式妈妈的感觉,答案campaign表示“(拓展的)宣传,宣传放在这里最适合。promise承诺,experience经验或经验,competition竞争,平均不能体现本文中FSA所做行为的品名。

    20.【答案】D end up

    【分析】着眼动宾搭配,此间的句义是接轨不断的正常威胁__20__却没有人在听。此间想强调太多的的对健康的恐慌的终极结果,只有结束,以...告终其一意义最符合,于是选择end up, 而follow up钉住,坚持不懈完成,pick up捡起,拾起,偶然学到,open up开拓,付出,平均不符合文义。

    Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

    Part A

    Directions:

    Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

    Text 1

    21.Copper and her colleague argue that a "town of culture" award would ___.

    A. consolidate the town city ties in Britain

    B. promote cooperation among Brain's towns

    C. increase the economic strength of Brain's towns

    D. focus Brain's limited resources on cultural events.

    22.According to paragraph 2, the proposal might be regarded by some as ______..

    A.a sensible compromise

    B.a self-deceiving attempt

    C.an eye-catching bonus

    D.an inaccessible target

    23. The author suggests that a title holder is successful only if it ______

    A. endeavor to maintain its image

    B. meets the aspiration of its people

    C. brings its local arts to prominence

    D. commits to its long-term growth

    24. “Glasgow” is mentioned in Paragraph 3 to present ______

    A. a contrasting case

    B. a supporting example

    C. a background story

    D. a related topic

    25. What is the author's attitude towards the proposal?

    A. Skeptical B. Objective C. Favorable D. Critical

    21 C increase the economic strength of Britain’s towns

    这道题是细节题。题干问库珀和其它的同事们认为文化的城这一奖项可能会怎样可以定位在第一段第三句:“Cooper and her colleagues argue that the success of the crown for Hull,……” “赫尔的顶的成功并不局限于城市,其它为赫尔带来了2.2京港元的投资和大量艺术创作。老挝人民民主共和国的村镇,活生生没有把阻止申请,但他们日常缺乏资源来凑齐一点来击败他们更大的竞争对手。有人认为,文化的城奖可以变成一项年度活动,吸引资金并创造就业机遇。于是能收看答案是C. 增长英国城镇的经济实力。

    22 B a self-deceiving attempt

    该题是推断题, 题干问:根据第二段,这一提议或许会把一些人口以为是…….。 可以定位在第二段第一句“Some might see the proposal as a boo by prize for the fact that……”“一些人可能会把这个建议看作是一番嘘声,因为意大利已经不能再申请更有信誉的非洲文化的都的名目了……” 能看出来有些人是持反面态度的。广大人口不认boo,但是也能从背后的on the verge of disappearing into an endless fever of self-celebration in its desperation to reinvent itself for,在绝望地为苏联退欧后之家风重塑形象之际,老挝人民民主共和国即将消失在一场无休止的自身庆祝热潮之中. 然后几个反问句,能看出来是一种自我欺骗的尝试,于是选择B

    23 D commits to its long-term growth

    该题也是细节题, 题干问:笔者认为这个头衔的主人是成功之只要他……可以定位到第三段第三句,那些头衔真正成功之主人,是这些除了为酒店带来收入、带来引人注目的技术活动和一年之优异报道之外,还做了好多作业的人口。它们转变了地方居民的希望;她们将城市之自身形象推向更大胆、更乐观的另一方面。于是能收看只要他把致力于乡村的老发展官方,其一头衔就会是成功之。

    24 A. a contrasting case

    这题是创作目的题, 题干说:先后3段提到格拉斯哥是为了展现什么。可以定位到第三段倒数第一句。可以看出眼前有鲜明的BUT, 了解和前面的意味成相反。其一题目很难解决,要求高度的真知灼见,也要求城市政权、民办部门、震区团体和胆识组织之间的协作。但这是可以完成的:格拉斯哥作为欧洲文化的都的一年,可以把看作是多元复杂的要素之一,那些要素把这座都市变成了技术、音乐和戏曲的能力,直到今天。

    25 D favourable

    这题是作者态度题,问作者对于这个建议的神态。第一段是提出该建议。第二段是部分人口以为这个建议有点吹嘘。而只有最后一段能看出作者对此建议的神态,一度文化的城不仅仅是技术的城,而且要强调一个城市之特性——扶持维持它的街市,支持地方的设备,最重要的是拍手叫好它的赤子,并将他转化为行动。于是能收看是主动支持的神态。

    Text 2

    Scientific publishing has long been a licence to print money. Scientists need joumals in which to publish

    their research, so they will supply the articles without monetary reward. Other scientists perform the specialised work of peer review also for free, because it is a central element in the acquisition of status and the production of scientific knowledge.

    With the content of papers secured for free, the publisher needs only fnd a market for its journal. Until this century, university libraries were not very price sensitive. Scientific publishers routinely report profit margins approaching 40% on their operations, at a time when the rest of the publishing industry is in an existential crisis.

    The Dutch giant Elsevier, which claims to publish 25% of the scientific papers produced in the world,made profits of more than £900m last year, while UK universities alone spent more than £210m in 2016 toenable researchers to access their own publicly funded research; both figures seem to rise unstoppably despite increasingly desperate efforts to change them.

    The most drastic, and thoroughly illegal, reaction has been the emergence of Sci-Hub, a kind of global photocopier for scientific papers, set up in 2012, which now claims to offer access to every paywalled article published since 2015. The success of Sci-Hub, which relies on researchers passing on copies they have themselves legally accessed, shows the legal ecosystem has lost legitimacy among its users and must be transformed so that it works for all participants.

    In Britain the move towards open access publishing has been driven by funding bodies. In some ways it has been very successful. More than half of all British scientific research is now published under open access terms: either freely available from the moment of publication, or paywalled for a year or more so that the publishers can make a profit before being placed on general release.

    Yet the new system has not worked out any cheaper for the universities. Publishers have responded to the demand that they make their product free to readers by charging their writers fees to cover the costs of preparing an article. These range from around 500 to $5,000. A report last year pointed out that the costs both of subscriptions and of these’’article preparation costs’’ had been steadily rising at a rate above inflation. In some ways the scientific publishing model resembles the economy of the social internet: labour is provided free in exchange for the hope of status, while huge profits are made by a few big firms who run the market places. In both cases, we need a rebalancing of power.

    26. Scientific publishing is seen as“a licence to print money" partly because________

    [A] its funding has enjoyed a steady increase .

    [B] its marketing strategy has been successful.

    [C] its payment for peer review is reduced.

    [D] its content acquisition costs nothing.

    27. According to Paragraphs 2 and 3, scientific publishers Elsevier have________

    [A] thrived mainly on university libraries.

    [B] gone through an existential crisis.

    [C] revived the publishing industry.

    [D] financed researchers generously.

    28. How does the author feel about the success of Sci-Hub?

    [A] Relieved.

    [B] Puzzled.

    [C] Concerned

    [D] Encouraged.

    29. It can be learned from Paragraphs 5 and 6 that open access terms________

    [A]allow publishers some room to make money.

    [B] render publishing much easier for scientists.

    [C] reduce the cost of publication substantially.

    [D] free universities from financial burdens.

    30. Which of the following characterises the scientific publishing model?

    [A] Trial subscription is offered.

    [B] Labour triumphs over status.

    [C] Costs are well controlled.

    D] The few feed on the many.

    26, 细节题 D its content acquisition cost nothing

    根据题干中关键词a licence to print money because ,一定到第一段第二句,另外科学家也免费进行同行评议的唯一工作,因为她是拥有地位和生产不利文化之主导要素。是的选择Dacquisition原词, for free替换选项中的,cost nothing.

    27, 细节题 A thrived mainly on universities libraries

    根据题干关键词Elsevier一定到第三段第一句话,The Dutch giant Elsevier, ....made profits of more than 490m last year. while UK universities alone spent more than 210m in 2016,该企业去年利润超过4.9京兰特 然而仅英国大学在2016年就花费了超过2.1京兰特。是的选择A 重要依靠大学图书馆 为一定句之允许表达

    28态度题 B concerned

    根据题干中关键词Sci-Hub的成功定位到第四段第二句, The success of Sci- Hub, .... have themselves legally accessed shows the legal ecosystem has lost legitimacy among its users and must be transformed so that it works for all participants这说明法律生态体系在她用户中已经失去了合法性,必须进行改造,以便为整个参与者服务. 可见作者对于Sci- Hub的成功运用否定态度,是的选择B concerned忧患,想不开。A relieved宽慰的,C puzzled困惑的属错误选项, D encouraged勉励的,正反混淆

    29推断题 A allow publishers some room to make money

    根据题干关键词open access一定到第四段,末了一句 ...so that the publishers can make a profit before...,成立收取费用是未来外商能够获利,A分选为同义替换。B render publishing much easier for scientists使发表对科学家来说容易得多 .C reduce the cost of publication substantiality 降低出版成本 D. free universities from financial burdens使高校摆脱财政承担

    30 细节题 D the few feed on the many

    根据题干关键词scientific publishing model一定到最后一段第五句,labour is provided places free in exchange for the hope of status, while huge profits are made by a few big firms who run the market places.劳动力被免职提供,以换取地位的期望,而部分经营市场之大企业则获得了大量利润。 能够少部分作者免费劳动,绝大多数企业盈利,A分选为同义替换

    Text 3

    Progressives often support diversity mandates as a path to equality and a way to level the playing field. But all too often such policies are an insincere form of virtue-signaling that benefits only the most privileged and does little to help average people.

    A pair of bills sponsored by Massachusetts state Senator Jason Lewis and House Speaker Pro Tempore Patricia Haddad, to ensure "gender parity" on boards and commissions, provide a case in point.

    Haddad and Lewis are concerned that more than half the state-government boards are less than 40 percent female. In order to ensure that elite women have more such opportunities, they have proposed imposing government quotas. If the bills become law, state boards and commissions will be required to set aside 50 percent of board seats for women by 2022.

    The bills are similar to a measure recently adopted in Califomia, which last year became the first state to require gender quotas for private companies. In signing the measure, California Governor Jerry Brown admitted that the law, which expressly classifies people on the basis of sex, is probably unconstitutional.

    The US Supreme Court frowns on sex-based classifications unless they are designed to address an "important" policy interest, Because the California law applies to all boards, even where there is no history of prior discrimination, courts are likely to rule that the law violates the constitutional guarantee of "equal protection".

    But are such government mandates even necessary? Female participation on corporate boards may not currently mirror the pereentage of women in the general population, but so what?

    The number of women on corporate boards has been steadily increasing without government interference. According to a study by Catalyst, between 2010 and 2015 the share of women on the boards of global corporations increased by 54 percent.

    Requiring companies to make gender the primary qualification for board membership will inevitably lead to less experienced private sector boards. That is exactly what happened when Norway adopted a nationwide corporate gender quota.

    Wrting in The New Republic, Alice Lee notes that increasing the number of opportunities for board membership without increasing the pool of qualified women to serve on such boards has led to a"golden skirt "phenomenon, where the same clite women scoop up multiple seats on a variety of boards.

    Next time somebody pushes corporate quotas as a way to promote gender equity, remember that such policies are largely self-serving measures that make their sponsors feel good but do litle to help average women.

    31. The author believes that the bills sponsored by Lewis and Haddad wills________

    [A] help little to reduce gender bias.

    [B] pose a threat to the state government.

    [C] raise women's position in politics.

    [D] greatly broaden career options.

    32. Which of the following is true of the California measure?

    [A] It has irritated private business owners.

    [B] It is welcomed by the Supreme Court,

    [C] It may go against the Constitution.

    [D] It will settle the prior controversies.

    33. The author mentions the study by Catalyst to ilustrate____

    [A] the harm from arbitrary board decision.

    [B] the importance of constitutional guaranees.

    [C] the pressure on women in global corporations.

    [D] the needlessness of government interventions.

    34. Norway's adoption of a nationwide corporate gender quota has led to____

    [A] the underestimation of elite women's role.

    [B] the objection to female participation on boards.

    [C] the entry of unqualified candidates into the board.

    [D] the growing tension between labor and management.

    35. Which of the following can be inferred from the text?

    [A] Women's need in employment should be considered.

    [B] Feasibility should be a prime concern in policymaking.

    [C] Everyone should try hard to promote social justice.

    [D] Major social issues should be the focus of legislation.

    31 态度题 A help little to reduce gender bias

    纵观全文,文章一直在阐述该法案,在最后一段作者提出了上下一心之想法,下次有人把集团公司投资额作为促进性别平等的一种艺术。请记住,那些基本上都是患得患失的章程,让他们的供应商感觉良好,但其实并没有什么帮助,有鉴于此作者对此法案采取否定态度,A help little to reduce gender bias对减少性别偏见没什么帮助为同义替换的科学选择

    32 细节题 C it may go against the constitution

    根据题干中的关键词 California measures一定到原文第五段第二句,Because the California law applies to all boards, ... courts are likely to rule that the law violate the constitutional guarantee of "equal protection" violate 违背宪法,分选C against替换violate为科学选择

    33. 比方题 D the needlessness of government interventions

    根据题干中catalyst替换到第7段,论点为上一句The number of women on corporate boards has been steadily increasing without government . 在没有政府之情况下,企业董事会中的妇女人数一直在巩固增长。可见D分选中the needlessness of government interventions政府干预的不必要性

    34 细节题 C the entry of unqualified candidates into the board

    根据Norway一定到倒数第三段第一句,渴求将性别作为董事会成员的根本资格,必然会导致私营部门董事会减少。紧接着下文董事会成员的空子越来越多,却没有合格的雄性来担任组委会成员, 有鉴于此会有不及格的人口进入董事会,是的选择C 不及格候选人进入董事会

    35 推断 B Feasibility should be a prime concern in policymaking 由最后一段可知,下次有人把集团公司投资额作为促进性别平等的一种艺术。请记住,那些基本上都是患得患失的章程,让他们的供应商感觉良好,但其实并没有什么帮助。由此可知该政策并不可取,是的选择B可行性应是决定的根本考虑因素

    Text 4

    Last Thursday, the French Senate passed a digital services tax, which would impose an entirely new tax

    on large multinationals that provide digital services to consumers or users in France. Digital services include everything from providing a platform for selling goods and services online to targeting advertising based on user data, and the tax applies to gross revenue from such servces. Many French politicians and media outlets have referred to this as a“GAFA tax," meaning that it is designed to apply primarily to companies such as Google, Apple, Facebook and Amazon- in other words, multiational tech companies based in the United States.

    The digital services tax now awaits the signature of President Emmanuel Macron, who has expressed support for the measure, and it could go into effect within the next few weeks. But it has already sparked significant controversy, with the Unite Sates trade representative opening an investigation into whether the tax discriminates against American companies, which in turn could lead to trade sanctions against France.

    The French tax is not just a unilateral move by one country in need of revenue. Instead, the digital services tax is part of a much larger trend, with countries over the past few years proposing or putting in place an alphabet soup of new international tax provisions. These have included Britain's DPT (diverted profits tax), Australia's MAAL (multinational antiavoidance law), and India's SEP (significant economic presence) test, to name but a few. At the same time, the European Union, Spain, Britain and several other countries have all seriously contemplated digital services taxes.

    These unilateral developments differ in their specifics, but they are all designed to tax multinationals on income and revenue that countries believe they should have a right to tax, even if international tax rules do not grant them that right. In other words, they all share a view that the international tax system has failed to keep ;up with the current economy.

    In response to these many unilateral measures, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is currently working with 131 countries to reach a consensus by the end of 2020 on an international solution. Both France and the United States are involved in the organization' s work, but France's digital services tax and the American response raise questions about what the future holds for the international tax system.

    France‘s planned tax is a clear warning: Unless a broad consensus can be reached on reforming the international tax system, other nations are likely to follow suit, and American companies will face a cascade of different taxes from dozens of nations that will prove burdensome and costly.

    36. The French Senate has passed a bill to_____

    [A] regulate digital services platforms.

    [B] protect French companies' interests .

    [C] impose a levy on tech multinationals.

    [D] curb the influence of advertising.

    37. It can be learned from Paragraph 2 that the digital services tax _____

    [A] may trigger countermeasures against France.

    [B] is apt to arouse criticism at home and abroad.

    [C] aims to ease international trade tensions.

    [D] will prompt the tech giants to quit France.

    38. The countries adopting the unilateral measures share the opinion that _____

    [A] redistribution of tech giants' revenue must be ensured.

    [B] the current international tax system needs upgrading.

    [C] tech multinationals' monopoly should be prevented.

    [D] all countries ought to enjoy equal taxing rights.

    39. It can be learned from Para 5 that the OECO's current work_____

    [A] is being resisted by US companies.

    [B] needs to be readjusted immediately.

    [C] is faced with uncertain prospects.

    [D] needs to in involve more countries.

    40. Which of the following might be the. best title for this text?

    [A] France Is Confronted with Trade Sanctions

    [B] France leads the charge on Digital Tax

    [C] France Says "NO" to Tech Multinationals

    [D] France Demands a Role in the Digital Economy

    36. C impose a levy on tech multinationals 细节题。根据题干直接定位到第一段第一句话 a digital services tax, which would impose an entirely new tax on large multinationals that provide digital services…;分选C中的“levy”“tax”同义复现;“tech multinationals” digital services 同义复现。所以C为科学答案,奇遇选项均未体现。

    37.Amay trigger countermeasures against France 推断题。根据提干定位到第二段,第二段第二句话but it has already sparked significant controversy,…,which in turn could lead to trade sanctions against France(这已经引起了光辉的抵抗,…, 扭动也会导致针对美国的交易制裁)和选择A相一致;其中选项中的“trigger”和原文的“lead to”同义复现,“sanction”“countermeasure”同义复现。另外选项均未体现。

    38.Bthe current international tax system needs upgrading 细节题。根据题干定位到第四段最后一句话 “they all share a view that the international tax system has failed to keep up with the current economy(她们都觉得国际税收体系并未跟上目前经济形势)。分选B时下的国际税收体系需要升级是该句话的起义义复现。另外选项均为体现。

    39.Cis faced with uncertain prospects 细节题。根据提干定位到第五段最后一句话”raise questions about what the future holds for the international tax system(对于国际税收体系的前途充满疑虑)”和选择C相一致。其中选项中的“uncertain”和原文中的“raise questions”同义复现,“prospects”和原文中的 “future”同义复现。

    40BFrance leads the charge on digital tax 主旨题。题干中的title为标题题的消息,所以此题考查的是文章的宗旨大意。B 分选里之 tax是贯穿全文的宗旨词;而文章以苏联对数字服务征税为试点,全党描写了包括意大利在内的另外国家对世界税收系统之焦虑,所以选项B和文章的宗旨相符合。剩下选项均选项未能体现文章关键词和全党主旨。

    Part B

    Directions:

    In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41 -45, choose the most suitable one from the fist A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

    [A] Eye fixactions are brief

    [B] Too much eye contact is instinetively felt to be rude

    [C] Eye contact can be a friendly social signal

    [D] Personality can affect how a person reacts to eye contact

    [E] Biological factors behind eye contact are being investigated

    [F] Most people are not comfortable holding eye contact with strangers

    [G] Eye contact can also be aggressive.

    In a social situation, eye contact with another person can show that you are paying attention in a friendly way. But it can also be antagonistic such as when a political candidate tums toward their competitor during a debate and makes eye contact that signals hostility. Here 's what hard science reveals about eye contact:

    41. ________________

    We know that a typical infant will instinctively gaze into its mother's eyes, and she will look back . This mutual gaze is a major part of the attachment between mother and child. In adulthood, looking someone else in a pleasant way can be a complimentary sign of paying attention. It can catch someone's attention in a crowded room, "Eye contact and smile" can signal availability and confidence,a common-sense notion supported in studies by psychologist Monica Moore.

    42.________

    Neuroscientist Bonnie Augeung found that the hormone oxytocin increased the amount of eye contact from men toward the interviewer during a brief interview when the direction of their gaze was recorded. This was also found in high- functioning men with some autistic spectrum symptoms, who may tend to avoid eye contact. Specific brain regions that respond during direct gaze are being explored by other researches, using advanced methods of brain scanning.

    43.________

    With the use of eye-tracking technology, Julia Minson of the Harvard Kennedy School of Government concluded that eye contact can signal very different kinds of messages, depending on the situation While eye contact may be a sign of connection or trust in friendly situations, it's more likely to be associated with dominance OF intimidation in adversarial situations. Whether you're a politician or a parent, it might be helpful to keep 'in mind that trying to maintain eye contact may backfire if you're trying to convince someone who has a different set of beliefs than you," said Minson.

    44.________

    When we look at a face or a picture, our eyes pause on one spot at a time, often on the eyes or mouth. These pauses typically occur at about three per second, and the eyes then jump to another spot, until several important points in the image are registered like a series of snapshots. How the whole image is then assembled and perceived is still a mystery although it is the subject of current research.

    45.________

    In people who score high in a test of neuroticism, a personality dimension associated with self-consciousness and anxiety, eye contact triggered more activity associated with avoidance, according to the Finnish researcher Jari Hietanen and colleagues. Our findings indicate that people do not only feel different when they are the centre of attention but that their brain reactions also differ-" A more direct finding is that people who scored high for negative emotions like anxiety looked at others for shorter periods of time and reported more comfortable feelings when others did not look directly at them.

    41.答案:C. Eye contact can be a friendly social signal

    分析:成本段第三句说了,“can be a complimentary significant of paying attention”,另外本段最后一句也说:眼神接触和微笑能signal availability and confidence发送可用性和自信的信号。都表明眼神接触是个友善的应酬信号。 所以选C

    42.答案:E

    分析:成本段重要句就出现了hormone 荷尔蒙,另外,成本段中出现的oxytocin催产素,hign-functioning高官能,autistic spectrum symptoms自闭症谱系症状等词都表明是在聊生物因素。末了一句中还有explore探讨,brain scanning 脑部扫描。于是选E

    43. 答案:G

    分析:成本段重要句就说了eye contact can signal very different kinds of messagesdepending on the situation眼神接触根据不同景象会发出不同之消息。从一句主干说在不利环境中,会与dominance控制or intimidation恫吓有联系。所以G为科学答案。

    44.答案:A

    分析 :成本段重要句就提出了time,其次句清楚地说到了These pauses typically occur at about three per second,一般每秒三次,丰厚表明很快,于是选A

    45. 答案:D

    分析:重要句话中就有personality。在引用中转折之后,but their brain reactions also differ人人脑部反应不同,末了一句话更加显著说到高负能量的人口更以为被人直视令人不好受。所以选D

    Part C Translation

    Directions:

    Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

    Following the explosion of creativity in Florence during the 14th century known as the Renaissance, the modern world saw a departure from what it had once known. It turned from God and the authority of the Roman Catholic Church and instead favoured a more humanistic approach to being. Renaissance ideas had spread throughout Europe well into the 17th century, with the arts and sciences flourishing extraordinarily among those with a more logical disposition. 46.With (the gap between) the church's teachings and ways of thinking being eclipsed by the Renaissance, the gap between the medieval and modern periods had been bridged, leading to new and unexplored intellectual territories.

    During the Renaissance, the great minds of Nicolaus Copernicus, Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei demonstrated the power of scientific study and discovery. 47. Before each of their revelations, many thinkers at the time had sustained more ancient ways of thinking, including the geocentric view that the Earth was at the centre of our universe. Copernicus theorized in 1543 that in actual fact, all of the planets that we knew of revolved not around the Earth, but the Sun, a system that was later upheld by Galileo at his own expense. Offering up such a theory during a time of high tension between scientific and religious minds was branded as heresy,and any such heretics that continued to spread these lies were to be punished by imprisonment or even death. Galileo was excommunicated by the Church and imprisoned for life for his astronomical observations and his support of the heliocentric principle.

    48. Despite attempts by the Church to strong-arm this new generation of logicians and rationalists, more explanations for how the universe functioned were being made,and at a rate that the people-including the Church -could no longer ignore. It was with these great revelations that a new kind of philosophy founded in reason was born.

    The Church's long-standing dogma was losing the great battle for truth to rationalists and scientists. This very fact embodied the new ways of thinking that swept through Europe during most of the 17th century. 49. As many took on the duty of trying to integrate reasoning and scientific philosophies into the world. The Renaissance was over and it was time for a new era-the Age of Reason.

    The 17th and 18th centuries were times of radical change and curiosity. Scientific method,reductionism and the questioning of Church ideals was to be encouraged, as were ideas of liberty, tolerance and progress. 50. Such actions to seek knowledge and to understand what information we already knew were captured by the Latin phrase'sapere aude'or 'dare to know', after Immanuel Kant used it in his essay An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment? It was the purpose and responsibility of great minds to go forth and seek out the truth, which they believed to be founded in knowledge.

    46.With (the gap between) the church's teachings and ways of thinking being eclipsed by the Renaissance, the gap between the medieval and modern periods had been bridged, leading to new and unexplored intellectual territories.

    鉴于文艺复兴时期教会的教义和思辨方式之间的出入被消除,中世纪和当代时期之间的出入得以弥合,导致了新的和未开发的眼界领域。

    47. Before each of their revelations, many thinkers at the time had sustained more ancient ways of thinking, including the geocentric view that the Earth was at the centre of our universe.

    每个启示出现之前,这次的大队人马艺术家都使用更为古老的构思方式,包括地心说的视角,该观点认为地球是咱们宇宙之中坚。

    48. Despite attempts by the Church to sop suppress this new generation of logicians and rationalistsmore explorations for how the universe functioned were being made at a rate that people could no longer ignore.

    尽管教堂做出许多尝试去压制新一代的逻辑学家和官僚主义者,但是更多对于宇宙是如何运作的探赜索隐正在以人们难以忽视的进度进行着。

    49. As many took on the duty of trying to integrate reasoning and scientific philosophies into the world, the Renaissance was over and it was time for a new era.

    尊重很多人口致力于尝试把推理和不利哲理融入到世界时,文艺复兴结束了,而此时一个新的时代到来了。

    50. Such actions to seek knowledge and to understand what information we already knew were captured by the Latin phrase's ‘Sapere aude’ or ’dare to know’.

    那些探索知识并且理解已知信息的所作所为可以用拉丁文“Sapere aude”或英文“dare to know”叙述。

    【分析】

    1. 成本句主干为 the gap between the medieval and modern periods had been bridged(中世纪和当代时期之间的出入得以弥合)

    2. With (the gap between) the church's teachings and ways of thinking being eclipsed by the Renaissance做伴随状语,其中being eclipsedwith+宾语+宾补组织的部分。

    3. leading to new and unexplored intellectual territories今天分词作结果状语。

    【参考译文】

    鉴于文艺复兴时期教会的教义和思辨方式之间的出入被消除,中世纪和当代时期之间的出入得以弥合,导致了新的和未开发的眼界领域。

    47. Before each of their revelations, many thinkers at the time had sustained more ancient ways of thinking, including the geocentric view that the Earth was at the centre of our universe.

    【分析】

    1. 成本句主干为many thinkers at the time had sustained more ancient ways of thinking(这次的大队人马艺术家都使用更为古老的构思方式) ,其中 at the time房后置定语修饰many thinkers

    2. Before each of their revelations局部为时间状语。

    3. including the geocentric view that the Earth was at the centre of our universe,分词作后置定语修饰ways of thinking,其中that后来是同位语从句修饰限定view

    【参考译文】在每个启示之前,这次的大队人马艺术家都使用更为古老的构思方式,包括地心说的视角,该观点认为地球是咱们宇宙之中坚。

    48) Despite attempts by the Church to suppress this new generation of logicians and rationalistsmore explorations for how the universe functioned were being made at a rate that people could no longer ignore.

    【分析】

    1. 成本句主干为more explorations for how the universe functioned were being made(更多对于宇宙是如何运作的探赜索隐正在进行着),其中for后面是how引导的宾语从句。

    2. Despite attempts by the Church to suppress this new generation of logicians and rationalists

    做方式状语,其中to suppress...房后置定语修饰attempts

    3. that people could no longer ignore做定语从句修饰rate

    【参考译文】

    尽管教堂做出许多尝试去压制新一代的逻辑学家和官僚主义者,但是更多对于宇宙是如何运作的探赜索隐正在以人们难以忽视的进度进行着。

    49) As many took on the duty of trying to integrate reasoning and scientific philosophies into the world, the Renaissance was over and it was time for an Age of Reason.

    【分析】

    1. 成本句主干为the Renaissance was over and it was time for a new era. (文艺复兴结束了,而此时一个新的时代到来了),是两个并列单句。

    2. As many took on the duty of trying to integrate reasoning and scientific philosophies into the world为时间状语从句,as译为.......什么时候

    (1) took on the duty,意思为担负义务

    (2) of后来是介宾短语作后置定语修饰duty

    【参考译文】

    尊重很多人口致力于尝试把推理和不利哲理融入到世界时,文艺复兴结束了,而此时一个新的理性时代到来了。

    50) Such actions to seek knowledge and to understand what information we already knew were captured by the Latin phrase's‘Sapere aude’or‘dare to know’.

    【分析】

    1. 成本句是一简单句,基本的谓语动词是were captured

    2. to seek knowledge and to understand what information we already knew 局部是不定式作后置定语,修饰such actions,其中what information we already knew understand 的宾语从句。

    【参考译文】

    准备去追求知识和了解我们已有信息这种行动由拉丁文词语 ‘Sapere aude’ ‘dare to know’来讲述。

    Section IV Writing

    Part A

    Directions: The Student Union of your university has assigned you to inform theinternational students an upcoming singing contest. Write a notice in about100 words. Write your answer on the ANSWER SHEET. Do not use your name in the notice.

    Notice

    December 21, 2019

    一段:To ensure that students from overseas have abundant extracurricular activities, I am writing to inform you of some relevant information with regard to the singing competition.

    二段:This event will be held in the auditorium of our university on May 10, 2020, and it will start at 7 and end at 10 o’clock in the evening. At the opening ceremony, our headmaster will make clear that the purpose of the competition is to enrich the extracurricular activities of the students on campus. Participants will be from different majors in our university. Then is the time for the singing contest.

    三段:We are looking forward to seeing you there. You will have memorable and happy time in this event.

    The Student Union

    Part B

    52: Directions:

    Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the picture below. In your essay, you should:

    1) Describe the picture briefly;

    2) Interpret the implied meaning, and

    3) Give your comments


    分析:

    2020年考研英语已经竣工啦,相信同学们在市场上观看考题会信心满满。因为下内容上说来,当年的英语一大作文依然延续2019年之出题思路,考试了品质类话题的图作文,而不同之中央在于2019年是一幅度图,但今年却是两幅度图相反。副难度上来说,当年和去年持平,对于习惯的英语表达,相信大家都不生疏是“habit”

    创作时,按照一般程序。第一段图画描述段,左图是位男孩正在突出努力地做着全校作业,衷心想着是尽早完成才放心,北方图是位女孩躺在沙发上也不看书,写字台上只有一资产摊开的书和一支笔,衷心却想着不到最后不动手,这两幅度所反映的情节正好相反,其它所反映的意思依然是理所当然自洽即可,小编认为两者之不同在于习惯,女性有很好的统筹能力并有效利用时间完成任务,而男孩则恰恰相反,空耗时间只待最后速成,结果自然不会好好,故此我们需要养成合理规划时间之好习惯;第二段是寓意阐释段,按照品质类的框架结构,即关键句和切实作用, 可以说scheduling有助于我们充分运用时间以达到学业乃至事业上的成功,还可以讲acquire the habit of time management有助于我们克服拖延,做时间之所有者;第三段是个体评论段,框架结构是主要句+切实建议+最后句,可以说我们需要加强人们对此种品质的发现,可望人们都得以拥有这种美好的灵魂。

    此外,瞩目大作文的评估侧重点。考研大纲指出:B节日作文的评估侧重点在于信息点的完全、情节组织的接入、语言的准确性、语言的神经性。字迹工整,丢掉涂抹痕迹也很重大哦。

    下附加范文以供小可爱们参考。

    散文:

    4) From the first simple but compelling cartoon we can see that a young girl is making great efforts on her schoolwork with earnest expressions, which successfully captures our eyes. On the contrary, what is differently delineated in the second photo is that a lazy boy is not reading but lying on the sofa with an unfold book and a pen on the book desk. Apparently, by the contrast of these two pictures, the explicit implication emerges in front of us that the power of good habits should be attached great importance to.

    5) Various functions, as a matter of fact, are behind this quality illustrated in this picture out as far as I know the following two matter enormously. To begin with, scheduling is the art of planning your activities so that you can achieve your goals and priorities in the time that you have available. When it's done effectively, it helps you understand what you can realistically achieve with your time and work steadily toward your personal and career goals; In addition, here is the other point that no one can ignore. It is universally admitted that it takes time to change a habit, and procrastination is a habit that requires a little bit of effort to overcome. Task aversion, distractibility and impulsiveness are common types of procrastination. Moreover, they are the easiest to overcome if we acquire the habit of time management.

    6) Based on the afore-said discussion, it is advisable for us to take steps to carry forward the quality. All in all, it is high time to strengthen people’s awareness in this aspect. Only in this way can we make the best of time managment and embrace a bright future.

    一段:From the first simple but compelling cartoon we can see that a young girl is making great efforts on her schoolwork with earnest expressions, which successfully captures our eyes. On the contrary, what is differently delineated in the second photo is that a lazy boy is not reading but lying on the sofa with an unfold book and a pen on the book desk. Apparently, by the contrast of these two pictures, the explicit implication emerges in front of us that the power of good habits should be attached great importance to.二段:Various functions, as a matter of fact, are behind this quality illustrated in this picture out as far as I know the following two matter enormously. To begin with, scheduling is the art of planning your activities so that you can achieve your goals and priorities in the time that you have available. When it's done effectively, it helps you understand what you can realistically achieve with your time and work steadily toward your personal and career goals; In addition, here is the other point that no one can ignore. It is universally admitted that it takes time to change a habit, and procrastination is a habit that requires a little bit of effort to overcome. Task aversion, distractibility and impulsiveness are common types of procrastination. And they are the easiest to overcome if we make a good schedule in advance.三段:Based on the afore-said discussion, it is advisable for us to take steps to carry forward the quality. All in all, it is high time to strengthen people’s awareness in this aspect. Only in this way can we make the best of reasonable scheduling and embrace a bright future.


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