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    2020年考研英语(二)真题答案解析

    来源:www.fiveyearsblog.com 笔者:群贤厦大考研网 浏览:361 先后 通告时间:2019/12/20

    2020年之考研初试已落下帷幕,各国学科的考研真题以及答案解析也已非常出炉,无论考得如何,只要你认真待之,就无悔可言,因为她已变成你人生中必不可少的珍贵经验之一,不时回忆起,也会为那个为了梦想坚持、闻鸡起舞的大团结骄傲。下,群贤厦大考研网就为各位考生整理发布2020年各个学科的真题。



    2020年考研英语(二)真题答案解析


    Section I Use of English

    Directions

    Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

    Being a good parent is, of course, what every parent would like to be. But defining what it means to be a good parent is undoubtedly very __1__, particularly since children respond differently to the same style of parenting. A calm, rule-following child might respond better to a different sort of parenting than, __2__, a younger sibling.

    __3__, there’s another sort of parent that’s a bit easier to __4__: a patient parent. Children of every age benefit from patient parenting. Still, __5__ every parent would like to be patient, this is no easy __6__. Sometimes parents get exhausted and frustrated and are unable to maintain a __7__ and composed style with their kids. I understand this.

    You’re only human, and sometimes your kids can __8__ you just a little too far. And then the __9__ happens: You lose your patience and either scream at your kids or say something that was a bit too __10__ and does nobody any good. You wish that you could __11__ the clock and start over. We’ve all been there.

    __12__, even though it’s common, it’s important to keep in mind that in a single moment of fatigue, you can say something to your child that you may __13__ for a long time. This may not only do damage to your relationship with your child but also __14__ your child’s self-esteem.

    If you consistently lose your __15__ with your kids, then you are inadvertently modeling a lack of emotional control for your kids. We are all becoming increasingly aware of the __16__ of modeling tolerance and patience for the younger generation. This is a skill that will help them all throughout life. In fact, the ability to emotionally regulate or maintain emotional control when __17__ by stress is one of the most important of all life’s skills.

    Certainly, it’s incredibly __18__ to maintain patience at all times with your children. A more practical goal is to try, to the best of your ability, to be as tolerant and composed as you can when faced with __19__ situations involving your children. I can promise you this: As a result of working toward this goal, you and your children will benefit and __20__ from stressful moments feeling better physically and emotionally.

    1. A tedious B pleasant C instructive D tricky

    2. A in addition B for example C at once D by accident

    3. A fortunately B occasionally C accordingly D eventually

    4. A amuse B assist C describe D train

    5. A while B because C unless D once

    6. A answer B task C choice D access

    7. A tolerant B formal C rigid D critical

    8. A move B drag C push D send

    9. A mysterious B illogical C suspicious D inevitable

    10. A boring B naive C harsh D vague

    11. A turn back B take apart C set aside D cover up

    12. A overall B instead C however D otherwise

    13. A like B miss C believe D regret

    14. A raise B affect C justify D reflect

    15. A time B bond C race D cool

    16. A nature B secret C importance D context

    17. A cheated B defeated C confused D confronted

    18. A terrible B hard C strange D wrong

    19. A trying B changing C exciting D surprising

    20. A hide B emerge C withdraw D escape

    当年完形填空的贡献度系数很小,基本无生词,长难句也很少。讲的是二老对孩子要有耐心,属于比较生活之专题。下我们一起来看一下答案及解析。

    1.【答案】D tricky

    【分析】这里考察词义辨析+上下文语境。文章首段首句为主题句:每位父母都想变成好的爹妈。空格句开头为but,句意上出现了转折,但是如何定义好的爹妈是个课题since后来送出了原因,因为不同之儿女对待同样的养育方式反馈也是不同之tricky意为困难的,艰苦之,符合句意。

    2.【答案】B for example

    【分析】这里考察上下文逻辑关系。眼前说了不同之儿女对待同样的养育方式反馈也是不同之,此句为例证,如果换一种养育方式,一度冷静而听话的儿女可能会比她的兄弟或妹妹反应更广大。于是用表示举例分析的for example最适合,另外选择另外、偶尔、意外地都不适合。

    3.【答案】A Fortunately

    【分析】这里考察副词词义辨析+上下文语境。空格所在句指出:还有一类父母描述起来会轻易一些,这类就是突出耐心的爹妈。第一段告诉我们如何定义怎样才是好之爹妈是个课题,此间在上下文文义上是个转折,侥幸地是/还好,有一类父母比较容易定义,并且各个年龄段的儿女都得以下他们的养育方式中获益。故选Fortunately,另外选择偶尔,对应地,最后地都不适合。

    4.【答案】C describe

    【分析】 这里考察动词词义辨析+上下文语境。第一段告诉我们如何定义怎样才是好之爹妈是个课题,第二段出现转折说但是有一类父母很好描述/定义,describedefine外貌呼应,故选C符合句意。

    5.【答案】A while

    【分析】这里考察上下文逻辑关系。空格所在句指出:虽然每位父母都想变成耐心的爹妈,但这并不容易。逗号前后为转折关系,四个选择中while表面转折,选A符合句意。

    6.【答案】B task

    【分析】这里考察名词词义辨析。虽然每位父母都想变成耐心的爹妈,但这不是个容易的事情/任务。task意为天职,另外选项答案,分选,途径/权限都不适合,故选B符合句意。

    7.【答案】A tolerant

    【分析】这里考察形容词词义辨析。空格所在句指出有时父母会很累很沮丧,这时对待孩子就很难沉着冷静(composed)和谅解。tolerant意为包容的,故选A符合句意。

    8.【答案】C push

    【分析】这里考察动词词义辨析+上下文语境。你也不是圣人/你也只是普通人,而且有时候孩子会把你逼的很紧。push为催促/紧逼,这里move(移步,使感动)drag(拖拽)send(发送)平均不符合句意,故选C

    9.【答案】D inevitable

    【分析】这里考察形容词词意辨析+上下文语境。空格前一句指出:有时候孩子会把你逼的很紧。空格后一句指出你会失去耐心,对孩子大吼大叫。这就是说这是男女把你逼的很紧的必然结果,inevitable 为无法避免的/必然的,故选D符合句意。

    10.【答案】C harsh

    【分析】这里考察词义辨析+上下文语境。空格句句意:你会失去耐心并对孩子大吼大叫,而且有时候会说有些很伤人/刻薄的话,对每个人都没好处。根据上下文,something 后面的名词一定是外延的,harsh为刺耳的/严厉的,故选C

    11.【答案】A turn back

    【分析】这里考察动词搭配+上下文语境。空格句句意:你会希望时间倒流,全体重新再来。turn back(使)往回走,take apart 为拆开/拆解,set aside为龙头....放一旁/不理会,cover up为盖起来,平均不符合句意,故选A

    12.【答案】C however

    【分析】这里考察上下文逻辑关系。空格句指出:然而,即使是这是很普遍的情景,咱还是要记住,哪怕只是一点线的疲劳,都会让你对孩子说有些你会后悔很久的话。上一段描述了家常情况下父母是如何对孩子失去耐心,并且这很普遍(We've all been there/it's common),空格句对比上一段发生了转折,故选C

    13.【答案】D regret

    【分析】这里考察动词词义辨析+上下文语境。上一段描述了上下如何对孩子失去耐心,接下来又希望时间倒流一切重新再来,这就是说疲惫时对孩子说的话一定是会让你后悔(regret)的,另外选择喜欢,错过,相信均不符合上下文,故选D

    14.【答案】B affect

    【分析】着眼动宾搭配。重组原文语境,这也许不仅会伤害你和男女之间的联络,而且会...你的儿女的自尊于是这里填上一个动词接后面的宾语自尊心,于是答案只能是affect,“影响自尊心。而raise加强,养育;justify证明合理性;reflect影响,平均不能合理搭配。

    15.【答案】D cool

    【分析】主题考察动宾搭配,也是主题复现,cool无声之意。如果你总是对你的儿女失去...,”本文一直在探索的主题就是对孩子要有耐心,所以符合题意的只能是cool, time岁月,bond重组,症结,race竞技,种族都不符合这里的语境。

    16.【答案】C importance

    【分析】主题考察名词的修饰关系,A of B的布局中填名词A,重要参照后面of组织对其它的修饰作用。Of组织在此间表示确立对孩子宽容和耐心的...”沟通前面说咱越来越重视...”所以符合题意的应当是importance“根本”nature,翩翩、生性;secret地下,context空气。

    17.【答案】D confronted

    【分析】主题考查动宾搭配,根据本题语境,事实上,在....压力时情绪调动或维持情绪控制的力量是任何生活技能中最重要的一项,压力前面应该搭配面对故选择confronted另外的cheated欺骗,defeated打败,confused困惑均不符合。

    18.【答案】B hard

    【分析】这里考察表语形容词。重要参照跟前面的incredible加起来表示不可避免的...一直对孩子保持耐心可以先看选项terrible糟糕的,strange奇怪的,wrong错误的,这三个都不能放在此处形成合理搭配,于是hard更方便。

    19.【答案】A trying

    【分析】主题考察修饰关系。根据原文语境一度更具体的对象是串尝试,尽你最大的力量,顶你面对涉及孩子的...景况时,尽可能地宽容和冷静要求父母宽容和冷静的应当是不太好的动静,答案trying做形容词表示令人讨厌的最适合。changing浮动,exciting兴奋的surprising令人咋舌的,平均不能体现这里的意义。

    20.【答案】B emerge

    【分析】着眼动宾搭配,此间的句义是朝着这个目标努力的结果是,你和你的儿女将受益并从很有压力的那些时候...,在身体和感情上感到更好。只有浮现,出现最符合,于是选择emerge, 而hide隐身,withdraw撤出,escape逃避均为负面含义,故不符合。

    Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

    Part A

    Directions:

    Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

    Text 1

    Rats and other animals need to be highly at tuned to social signals from others so that can identify friends to cooperate with and enemies to avoid. To find out if this extends to non-living beings, Loleh Quinn at the University of California, San Diego, and her colleagues tested whether rats can detect social signals form robotic rats.

    They housed eight adult rats with two types of robotic rat- one social and one asocialfor 5 our days. The robots rats were quite minimalist, resembling a chunkier version of a computer mouse with wheels-to move around and colorful markings.

    During the experiment, the social robot rat followed the living rats around, played with the same toys, and opened caged doors to let trapped rats escape. Meanwhile, the asocial robot simply moved forwards and backwards and side to side

    Next, the researchers trapped the robots in cages and gave the rats the opportunity to release them by pressing a lever.

    Across 18 trials each, the living rats were 52 percent more likely on average to set the social robot free than the asocial one. This suggests that the rats perceived the social robot as a genuine social being. They may have bonded more with the social robot because it displayed behaviours like communal exploring and playing. This could lead to the rats better remembering having freed it earlier, and wanting the robot to return the favour when they get trapped, says Quinn.

    The readiness of the rats to befriend the social robot was surprising given its minimal design. The robot was the same size as a regular rat but resembled a simple plastic box on wheels.“We' d assumed we' d have to give it a moving head and tail, facial features, and put a scene on it to make it smell like a real rat, but that wasn’t necessary, ”says Janet Wiles at the University of Queensland in Australia, who helped with the research.

    The finding shows how sensitive rats are to social cues, even when they come from basic robots. Similarly, children tend to treat robots as if they are fellow beings, even when they display only simple social signals.“ We humans seem to be fascinated by robots, and it turns out other animals are too,”says Wiles.

    21. Quin and her colleagues conducted a test to see if rats can________

    [A] pickup social signals from non-living rats

    [B] distinguish a friendly rat from a hostile one

    [C] attain sociable traits through special training

    [D] send out warning messages to their fellow

    22. What did the social robot do during the experiment?

    [A] It followed the social robot.

    [B]It played with some toys.

    [C] It set the trapped rats free.

    [D]It moved around alone.

    23. According to Quinn, the rats released the social robot because they________

    [A] tried to practice a means of escape

    [B] expected it to do the same in return

    [C] wanted to display their intelligence

    [D]considered that an interesting game

    24. James Wiles notes that rats________

    [A]can remember other rat's facial features

    [B] differentiate smells better than sizes

    [C] respond more to cations than to looks

    [D]can be scared by a plastic box on wheels

    25. It can be learned from the text that rats________

    [A]appear to be adaptable to new surroundings

    [B] are more socially active than other animals

    C] behave differently from children in socializing

    [D]are more sensitive to social cues than expected

    21. 【答案】A pick up social signals from non-living rats

    分析:成本题目为细节题,着眼具体细节。根据题干关键词Quinn and her colleaguesa test一定到第一段第二句。To find out if this extends to non-living beings, Loleh Quinn at the University of California, San Diego, and her colleagues tested whether rats can detect social signals from robotic rats. 为了查明这是否延伸到了非生物,Quinn和其它的同事测试了老鼠能否从机器老鼠身上探测到社会信号。是的答案A是原文的同义替换。分选Bdistinguish a friendly rat from a hostile one分别友好的老鼠和敌视的老鼠,并未提及,是时效性干扰。分选Cattain sociable traits through special training交通过特殊训练获得社交品质,原文并未提及,属于无中生有。分选Dsend out warning messages to their fellow向它们的伴侣发出警告信息,原文并未提及,属于无中生有。

    22.【答案】D It moved around alone.

    分析:成本题目为细节题,着眼具体细节。根据题干关键词the asocial robotexperiment一定到第三段最后一句Meanwhile, the asocial robot simply moved forwards and backwards and side to side.同时,不具有社交能力的机器人只能开展简单的左右左右移动。是的答案D It moved around alone.是原文的同义替换。分选AIt followed the social robot.其它跟随具备社交能力的老鼠,与原文the social robot rat followed the living rats around不符,原文说的是具备社交能力的老鼠跟随真老鼠,属于张冠李戴。分选BIt played with some toys.其它玩一些玩具,与原文不符,原文中说的是具备社交能力的老鼠玩同样的玩具,属于张冠李戴。分选CIt set the trapped rats free.其它释放了被困的老鼠也与原文内容不符,原文说的同样是具备社交能力的老鼠,而题干问的是不具备社交能力的老鼠在实验中做了什么,属于张冠李戴。

    23.【答案】B expected it to do the same in return

    分析:成本题目为细节题,着眼具体细节。根据题干关键词Quinnthe rats released the social robots往下定位到第四五段,先后五段最后一句This could lead to the rats better remembering having freed it earlier, and wanting the robot to return the favour when they get trapped, says Quinn. Quinn说:这可能会让老鼠更好地记住早些时候已经释放了机器人,并愿意机器人在它们被困住时能回报它们的恩情。是的答案B expected it to do the same in return是原文的同义替换。干扰项A tried to practice a means of escape准备尝试一种逃跑的艺术,原文并未提及,属于无中生有。分选C wanted to display their intelligence想要展示它们的灵气,文中并未提到,属于无中生有。分选Dconsidered that an interesting game认为是个有趣的娱乐在原文当中也没有体现,属于无中生有。

    24.【答案】C respond more to actions than to looks

    分析:成本题目为细节题,着眼具体细节。根据题干关键词James Wiles一定到第六七段,尾段尾句We humans seem to be fascinated by robots, and it turns out other animals are too, says Wiles. Wiles说:咱人类似乎对机器人很着迷,实际证明其他动物也很着迷。再结合尾段前面部分的论述,会发现正确答案C respond more to actions than to looks对行动之反响多于对外部的反响,是原文的类似表达。干扰项Acan remember other rat's facial features能够记住其他老鼠的脸特征,与原文内容不符,原文第六段说的是形同虚设赋予机器老鼠面部特征,那都不重要,属于偷换概念。分选Bdifferentiate smells better than sizes与体型大小相比,能够更好地有别于气味,原文中只提到赋予机器老鼠真老鼠的口味,与原文不符,属于偷换概念。分选Dcan be scared by a plastic box on wheels会把装有轮子的塑料盒子吓坏,文中机器老鼠只是装有轮子的塑料盒子,还是属于偷换概念。

    25.【答案】D are more sensitive to social cues than expected

    分析:成本题目为推断题,着眼基于全文主旨进行推断。题干并没有实际关键词,所以需要通过增选回到文中逐一对应。是的答案D are more sensitive to social cues than expected对社交线索比预期更灵活,与原文尾段首句The finding shows how sensitive rats are to social cues, even when they come from basic robots.(这一发现显示了老鼠对社交暗示的敏锐程度,即使是来自基本机器老鼠的应酬暗示)属于类似表达。分选Aappear to be adaptable to new surroundings似乎能适应新环境,在文中并未提及,属于无中生有。分选Bare more socially active than other animals比任何动物更活跃,文中只提到其他动物也一样会对机器人着迷,属于偷换概念。干扰项Cbehave differently from children in socializing在社交活动中显示得与孩子不同,与原文内容相反,原文内容指的是孩子们倾向于把机器人当作人来对待,即使他们只显示简单的社会信号。这一点与老鼠是一样的,属于正反混淆。

    Text 2

    It is true that CEO pay has gone up-top ones may make 300 times the pay of typical workers on average, and since the mid-1970s CEO pay for large publicly traded American corporations has, by varying estimates, gone up by about 500% The typical CEO of a top American corporation now makes about S18.9 million a year.

    The best model for understanding the growth of CEO pay is that of limited CEO talent in a world where business opportunities for the top firms are growing rapidly. The efforts of America's highest-earning 1% have been one of the more dynamic elements of the global economy. It's not popular to say, but one reason their pay has gone up so much is that CEOs really have upped their game relative to many other workers in the U.S. economy.

    Today's CEO, at least for major American firms, must have many mere skills than simply being able to“run the company" CEOs must have a good sense of financial markets and maybe even how the company should trade in them. They also need better public relations skills than their predecessors, as the costs of even a minor slipup can be significant. Then there' s the fact that large American companies are much more globalized than ever before,with supply chains spread across a larger number of countries. To lead in that system requires knowledge that is farly mind-boggling plus, virtually all major American companies are beyond this major CEOs still have to do all the day-to-day work they have always done.

    The common idea that high CEO pay is mainly about ripping people off doesn't explain history very well. By most measures, corporate governmance has become a lot tighter and more rigorous since the 1970s. Yet it is principally during this period of stronger govemnance that CEO pay has been high and rising. That suggests it is in the broader corporate interest to recruit top candidates for increasingly tough jobs.”

    Furthermore, the highest CEO salaries are paid to outside candidates, not to the cozy insider picks, another sign that high CEO pay is not some kind of depredation at the expense of the rest of the company. And the stock market reacts positively when companies tie CEO pay to, say, stock prices, a sign that those practices build up corporate value not just for the CEO.

    26. Which of the following has contributed to CEO pay rise?

    [A] The growth in the number of corporations

    [B] The general pay rise with a better economy

    [C] Increased business opportunities for top firms

    [D] Close cooperation among leading economies

    27. Compared with their predecessors, today's CEOs are required to______

    [A] foster a stronger sense of teamwork

    [B] finance more research and development

    [C] establish closer ties with tech companies

    [D] operate more globalized companies

    28. CEO pay has been rising since the 1970s despite______

    [A] continual internal opposition

    [B] strict corporate governance

    [C] conservative business strategies

    [D] Repeated government warnings

    29. High CEO pay can be justified by the fact that it helps______

    [A] confirm the status of CEOs

    [B] motivate inside candidates

    [C] boost the efficiency of CEOs

    [D] increase corporate value

    30. The most suitable title for this text would be______

    [A] CEOs Are Not Overpaid

    [B] CEO Pay: Past and Present

    [C] CEOs' challenges of Today

    [D] CEO Traits: Not Easy to Define

    26.【答案】C Increased business opportunities for top firms

    分析:成本题目为细节题,着眼具体细节。根据题干关键词CEO pay rise及题干中对CEO薪酬增加原因之咨询,一定到第二段首句The best model for understanding the growth of CEO pay is that of limited CEO talent in a world where business opportunities for the top firms are growing rapidly.刺探CEO薪酬增长之超级模式是,CEO人才在一番顶级公司的买卖机会迅速提高之家风里是个别的。是的答案C Increased business opportunities for top firms追加顶级公司商业机会的增长。干扰项AThe growth in the number of corporations企业数量之加强,文中并不是说公司数量而是商业机会,属于偷换概念。分选BThe general pay rise with a better economy改善的经济带来的广泛加薪,文中并未提到better economy,属于无中生有。分选DClose cooperation among leading economies 重要经济体之间的周密协作,文中也并未提到经济体之间的啥做,属于无中生有。

    27.【答案】D operate more globalized companies

    分析:成本题目为细节题,着眼具体细节。根据题干关键词predecessorstoday's CEOs一定到第三段第二句They also need better public relations skills than their predecessors, as the costs of even a minor slipup can be significant. 她们还要求比他们的先辈更好的公关技巧,因为即使是一番小失误的资本也可能是伟大的。分选中并未提到,接轨往后看Then there's the fact that large American companies are much more globalized than ever before, with supply chains spread across a larger number of countries. 还有一个事实是,尼加拉瓜的大企业比从前任何时候都更加全球化,供应链遍布更多的国度。是的答案D operate more globalized companies经营更全球化的营业所是该句内容的同义替换。干扰项Afoster a stronger sense of teamwork铸就更强的组织合作意识,文中提到意识,只有对经济市场有很好的询问,甚至公司应该如何开展贸易的发现,属于偷换概念。分选Bfinance more research and development补助更多的研制,一定段并没有提出,属于无中生有。分选Destablish closer ties with tech companies与科技企业成立更紧密的联络,一定段并未提到,属于无中生有。

    28.【答案】B strict corporate governance

    分析:成本题目为细节题,着眼具体细节。根据题干关键词the 1970s一定到第四段第三句Yet it is principally during this period of stronger governance that CEO pay has been high and rising. 然而,首席执行官的薪酬主要是在这一治理更加有力的时代一直居高不下。是的答案B strict corporate governance严厉的营业所管理,属于原文内容的更迭表达。干扰项Acontinual internal opposition接轨的里间对立在文中并未提到,属于无中生有。分选C conservative business strategies 墨守成规的买卖策略,一定段并没有提出,属于无中生有。分选Drepeated government warnings 政府之故伎重演警告定位段并未提到,属于无中生有。

    29.【答案】D increase corporate value

    分析:成本题目为细节题,着眼具体细节。根据题干关键词High CEO pay及顺序出题规则,接轨看尾段,一定句是And the stock market reacts positively when companies tie CEO pay to, say, stock prices, a sign that those practices build up corporate value not just for the CEO.顶公司把首席执行官的薪酬与股票价格挂钩时,股票市场之反响是主动的,这说明这些做法不仅为首席执行官带来机制,而且创造了小卖部年产值。是的答案D increase corporate value追加公司年产值,是原文内容的更迭表达。干扰项Aconfirm the status of CEOs证实CEO的位置,一定段并未提到,属于无中生有。分选Bmotivate inside candidates激发内部候选人的能动,文中尾段首句首席执行官的最高薪水是交给外部候选人的,而不是交给那些舒适的里间人选,属于偷换概念。分选Cboost the efficiency of CEOs加强CEO的频率,一定段未提到,属于无中生有。

    30. 【答案】A CEOs Are Not Overpaid

    分析:成本题目为宗旨题,着眼文章主旨。根据题干分析文章主题词为CEO的薪酬,于是排除C项、D项选项ACEOs Are Not Overpaid 首席执行官的薪金并不高。分选BCEO Pay: Past and Present CEO的薪酬:过去和今天,而CEO过去的薪酬并不是原文中心,属于偏离主题,所以正确选择为A

    Text 3

    Madrid was hailed as a public health beacon last November when it rolled out ambitious restrictions on the most polluting cars. Seven months and one election day later, a new conservative city council suspended enforcement of the clean air zone, a first step toward its possible demise.

    Mayor Jose Luis Martinez -Almeida made opposition to the zone a centrepiece of his election campaign, despite its success in improving air quality. A judge has now overruled the city 's decision to stop levying fines, ordering them reinstated. But with legal battles ahead, the zone's future looks uncertain at best.

    Among other weaknesses, the measures cities must employ when left to tackle dirty air on their own are politically contentious, and therefore vulnerable. That s because they inevitably put the costs of cleaning the air on to individual driverswho must pay fees or buy better vehicles rather than on to the car manufacturers whose cheating is the real cause of our toxic pollution.

    It's not hard to imagine a similar reversal happening in London. The new ultra-low emission zone (Ulez) is likely to be a big issue in next year's mayoral election. And if Sadiq Khan wins and extends it to the North and South Circular roads in 2021 as he intends, it is sure to spark intense opposition from the far larger number of motorists who will then be affected.

    It's not that measures such as London's Ulez are useless. Far from it. Local officials are using the levers that are available to them to safeguard residents' health in the face of a serious threat. The zones do deliver some improvements to air quality, and the science tells us that means real health benefits - fewer heart attacks, strokes and premature births, less cancer, dementia and asthma. Fewer untimely deaths.

    But mayors and councillors can only do so much about a problem that is far bigger than any one city or town. They are acting because national governmentsBritain s and others across Europe - have failed to do so.

    Restrictions that keep highly polluting cars out of certain areas - city centres, school streets", even individual roads - are a response to the absence of a larger effort to properly enforce existing regulations and require auto companies to bring their vehicles into compliance. Wales has introduced special low speed limits to minimise pollution. We re doing everything but insist that manufacturers clean up their cars.

    31. Which of the following is true about Madrid's clean air zone?

    [A] Its effects are questionable

    [B]It has been opposed by a judge

    [C] It needs tougher enforcement

    [D] Its fate is yet to be decided

    32. Which is considered a weakness of the city-level measures to tackle dirty air?

    [A] They are biased against car manufacturers.

    [B] They prove impractical for city councils.

    [C] They are deemed too mild for politicians.

    D] They put too much burden on individual motorists.

    33. The author believes that the extension of London's Ulez will .

    [A] arouse strong resistance.

    [B] ensure Khan's electoral success.

    [C] improve the city s traffic.

    [D] discourage car manufacturing.

    34. Who does the author think should have addressed the problem?

    [A] Local residents

    [B]Mayors.

    [C] Councilors.

    [D] National governments.

    35. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that auto companies.

    [A] will raise low-emission car production

    [B]should be forced to follow regulations

    [C] will upgrade the design of their vehicles

    [D] should be put under public supervision

    31.【答案】D Its fate is yet to be decided

    分析:成本题目为细节题,着眼具体细节。根据题干关键词Madrid's clean air zone一定到明天两段,首段说明背景Madrid's clean air zone的实施暂停。接轨找第二段,尽管能够加强空气质量,但是市长表示反对。一位法官现在否决了该市停止征收罚款的决定,下令恢复原状。但随着法律斗争的展开,Madrid's clean air zone的前途看起来也不确定。是的答案D Its fate is yet to be decided其它的运气尚未决定,是原文内容的更迭表达。分选A Its effects are questionable.伊职能值得怀疑。与原文内容相反,属于正反混淆。分选BIt has been opposed by a judge.其它遭到法官的反对。文中法官反对的并不是Madrid's clean air zone,而是停止征收罚款的决定。分选CIt needs tougher enforcement.其它需要更严厉的实施。文中是履行已经停止,与原文内容不符,属于偷换概念。

    32.【答案】D They put too much burden on individual motorists.

    分析:成本题目为细节题,着眼具体细节。根据题干关键词a weakness of the city-level measurestackle dirty air一定到第三段第二句:That’s because they inevitably put the costs of cleaning the air on to individual drivers—who must pay fees or buy better vehicles—rather than on to the car manufacturers whose heating is the real cause of our toxic pollution.这是因为他们不可避免地把清洁空气的花销转嫁给这些必须付出费用或购买更好车辆的司机,而不是巴士制造商,因为他们的供暖是造成我们有毒污染之真实原因。是的答案D They put too much burden on individual motorists.她们送个人驾车者增加了太多负担与原文内容一致。分选A They are biased again car manufactures.她们对客车制造商有偏见,文中提到汽车制造商,却并未提到对伊有无偏见,属于偷换概念。分选BThey prove impractical for city councils.那些办法对市议会来说是不切实际的。分选CThey are deemed too mild for politicians.她们把认为对政治家来说太温和了。一定段并未提到,属于无中生有。

    33.【答案】A arouse strong resistance

    分析:成本题目为细节题,着眼具体细节。根据题干关键词 extensionLondon’s Ulez一定到第四段:And if Sadiq Khan wins and extends it to the North and South Circular roads in 2021 as he intends, it is sure to spark intense opposition from the far larger number of motorists who will then be affected.如果 Sadiq Khan2021年胜出,并按照它的愿望将他延伸至南北环路,确认会引发更多驾车者的引人注目反对,到时他们将受到影响。是的答案A arouse strong resistance引起强烈抵抗与原文内容一致。分选Bensure Khans electoral success确保Khans选举成功,文中提到的是如果这个人赢了,属于偷换概念。分选C improve the city's traffic改进城市交通,一定段并未提到,属于无中生有。分选Ddiscourage car manufacturing克服汽车工业也并未在一定段提到,属于无中生有。

    34.【答案】D National governments

    分析:成本题目为细节题,着眼具体细节。根据题干信息,问的是作者的实际观点。一定到第六段:But mayors and councillors can only do so much about a problem that is far bigger than any one city or town. They are acting because national governments-Britain's and others across Europe- have failed to do so.但是市长和国务委员们只能对一个比其它一个城市或城镇都大得多之题目做这么多之上班。她们之所以采取行动,由于英国和非洲其他国家的政权不能形成这一点。是的答案D National governments笔者认为国家政权应当解决这个题目,与原文内容一致。分选A Local residents地面居民,一定段并未提到,属于无中生有。分选BCmayors and councillors出现在一定句,但是与原文内容相反,属于正反混淆。

    35. 【答案】B should be forced to follow regulations

    分析:成本题目为推断题,着眼具体细节的测算。根据题干信息auto companies,一定到尾段首句:require auto companies to bring their vehicles into compliance渴求汽车公司使他车辆符合要求。是的答案B should be forced to follow regulations有道是被迫遵守规定,与原文信息一致。分选A will raise low-emission car production名将增进低排放汽车资源量,一定段并未提到,属于无中生有。分选CDwill upgrade the design of their vehicles should be put under public supervision名将提升他们的车子设计、有道是接受群众监督在原文中没有相关信息。

    Text4

    Now that members of Generation Z are graduating college this springthe most commonly-accepted definition says this generation was bom after 1995, give or take a year-the attention has been rising steadily in recent weeks. GenZs are about to hit the streets looking for work in a labor market that's tighter than it's been in decades. And employers are planning on hiring about 17 percent more new graduates for jobs in the U.S. this year than last, according to a survey conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers. Everybody wants to know how the people who will soon inhabit those empty office cubicles will differ from those who came before them.

    If"entitled"is the most common adjective, fairly or not, applied to millennials (those bom between 1981 and 1995), the catchwords for Generation Z are practical and cautious. According to the career counselors and expert who study them, Generation Zs are clear-eyed, economic pragmatists. Despite graduating into the best economy in the past 50 years, Gen Zs know what an economic train wreck looks like. They were impressionable kids during the crash of 2008, when many of their parents lost their jobs or their life savings or both. They aren,'t interested in taking any chances. The booming economy seems to have done little to assuage this underlying generational sense of anxious urgency, especially for those who have college debt. College loan balances in the U.S. now stand at a record $1.5 trillion, according to the Federal Reserve.

    One survey from Accenture found that 88 percent of graduating seniors this year chose their major with a job in mind. In a 2019 survey of University of Georgia students, meanwhile, the career office found the most desirable trait in a future employer was the ability to offer secure employment (followed by professional development and training, and then inspiring purpose). Job security or stability was the second most important career goal (work-life balance was number one), followed by a sense of being dedicated to a cause or to feel good about serving the great good.

    36. Generation Zs graduating college this spring_____.

    [A] are recognized for their abilities

    [B] are in favor of job offers

    [C] are optimistic about the labor market

    [D] are drawing growing public attention

    37. Generation Zs are keenly aware_____.

    [A] what a tough economic situation is like

    [B] what their parents expect of them

    [C] how they differ from past generations

    [D] I how valuable a counselors advice is

    38. The word"assuage"(line 9, para 2)is closet in meaning to_____.

    [A]define [B]relieve [C] maintain [D] deepen

    39.It can be learned from Paragraph 3 that Generation Zs_____.

    [A] care little about their job performance

    [B] give top priority to professional training

    [C]think it hard to achieve work-Life balance

    [D] have a clear idea about their future job

    40 Michelsen thinks that compared with millennials, Generation Zs are_____.

    [A]less realistic B] less adventurous [C]more diligent [D] more generous

    36. Care drawing growing public attention细节题。根据题干直接定位到文章根据提干第一段第一句话。消息选项中的“drawing growing public attention ”则对应到句中的“the attention has been rising steadily in recent weeks” (近几周的关注度在巩固增长)”,其中attention原词复现,risinggrowing同义复现;而其余的选择则与最佳选项无缘,在一定区间中没有相应的回答信息。

    37. Bwhat a tough economic situation is like;细节题。根据题干中了解Generation Z的性状我们来到第二段。题干中的aware直接定位到第二段第四列”Gen Zs know what an economic train wreck looks like(经济列车受到重创是什么样子的)”;消息选项中的“tough economic situation ”则对应到句中的“economic train wreck ”;而其余的选择则与最佳选项无缘,在一定区间中没有相应的回答信息。

    38. Crelieve;猜词题。根据题干,可以定位到第九段第二句话:“The booming economy seems to have done little to assuage this underlying generational sense of anxious urgency, especially for those who have college debt”,于是解题的重大是判断”The booming economy(红红火火的经济)””generational sense of anxious urgency(校际焦虑)”的联络;根据常识判断,红红火火的经济可以降低求职者的忧虑;再结合上一道题我们明白,Gen Zs是务实和严谨(practical and cautious)的时代;由此可以得出繁荣的经济并未降低求职者的忧虑,原文已有并未(have done little),分选B中的relieve(减轻)与我们的论断一致,所以答案为C。而他它的选择A define(定义)B maintain(保持)deepen(强化)和我们的论断都不一致。

    39. Ahave a clear idea about their future jobs; 推断题。问题中明确出题段落(from Paragraph 3)。所以,第三段的根本句chose their major with a job in mind(按照自己之绝妙工作选择专业)和选择D have a clear idea about their future jobs(对自己之前途上班有鲜明认识)相符合。根据原文中的第二句话(前途雇主最重要的特征是工作之祥和,其次位是工作发展与培养,先后三位是吸引人之对象)排除答案AB;分选C并未体现。

    40. Bless adventurous;细节题。题干中的compared with millennials一定到文章第二段:the catch words for Gen Zs are practical and cautious(Gen Zs的口号是务实和严谨);由此判断出选项B不爱冒险为科学答案。另外均与原文不不符。

    Part B

    Directions:

    Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list A-G for each numbered paragraphs (41 -45). There are two extra subheadings which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

    [A]Give compliments, just not too many.

    [B] Put on a good face, always.

    [C] Tailor your interactions.

    [D] Spend time with everyone.

    [E] Reveal, don' t hide, information.

    [F] Slow down and listen.

    [G] Put yourselves in others' shoes.

    Five Ways to Win Over Everyone in the Office

    Is it possible to like everyone in your office? Think about how tough it is to get together 15 people, much less 50, who all get along perfectly. But unlike in friendships, you need coworkers. You work with them every day and you depend on them just as they depend on you. Here are some ways that you can get the whole office on your side

    41.____

    If you have a bone to pick with someone in your workplace, you may try stay tight-lipped around them. But you won't be helping either one of you. A Harvard Business School study found that observers consistently rated those who were frank about themselves more highly, while those who hid lost trustworthiness. The lesson is not that you should make your personal life an open book, but rather, when given the option to offer up details about yourself or painstakingly conceal them, you should just be honest.

    42._____

    Just as important as being honest about yourself is being receptive to others. We often feel the need to tell others how we feel, whether it's a concern about a project, a stray thought, or a compliment. Those are all valid, but you need to take time to hear out your coworkers, too. In fact, rushing to get your own ideas out there can cause colleagues to feel you don't value their opinions. Do your best to engage coworkers in a genuine, back- and-forth conversation, rather than prioritizing your own thoughts.

    43._____

    It's common to have a“cubicle mate" or special confidant in a work setting. But in addition to those trusted coworkers, you should expand your horizons and find out about all the people around you. Use your lunch and coffee breaks to meet up with colleagues you don't always see. Find out about their lives and interests beyond the job. It requires minimal effort and goes a long way. This will help to gTow your internal network, in addition to being a nice break in the work day.

    44._____

    Positive feedback is important for anyone to hear. And you don't have to be someone's boss to tell them they did an exceptional job on a particular project. This will help engender good will in others. But don't overdo it or be fake about it. One study found that people responded best to comments that shifted from negative to positive, possibly because it suggested they had won somebody over.

    45.______

    This one may be a bit more difficult to pull off, but it can go a long way to achieving results. Remember in dealing with any coworker what they appreciate from an interaction. Watch out for how they verbalize with others. Some people like small talk in a meeting before digging into important matters, while other are more straightforward. Jokes that work one person won't necessarily land with another, So, adapt your style accordingly to type. Consider the person that you re dealing with in advance and what will get you to your desired outcome.

    41. 答案是E Reveal, don’t hide, information

    分析:根据段落转折句,你这样做对谁都没有益处。于是接下来就是作者的视角。她说一个研究发现观察者们一直对这些和她们坦诚的人口评说很高,而对这些有所隐藏的失去信任。于是就是中心实事求是,无需隐藏信息。

    42. 答案是F Slow down and listen

    分析:根据段落中心句: In fact, rishing to get your own ideas out there can cause colleagues to feel you don’t value their opinions. 意思是实际上,急着表达你的视角可能会让同事们认为你没有重视他们的视角。所以就是听取别人的视角。

    43. 答案是D Spend time with everyone

    分析:根据段落转折句,除了那些你信任的同事,你还应当扩大你的天地,并且寻找所有你身边的人口。所以就是要和每个人在总共。

    44. 答案是A Give compliments, just not too many

    分析:根据段落转折句,但是不要过度去做或者做假。有道是做的情节就在主业句,一度研究发现,人人对于从负面到正面的评奖反应最好,也许因为这个评价表明他们有比其他人做得好。所以这就是中心称赞,但是不能太多。

    45. 答案是C Tailor your interactions

    分析:根据段落中心句,末了一句:So, adapt your style accordingly to type. 意思是中心相应地把你的品格适合于不同之项目。也就是因人而异的意味。

    Section III Translation

    It's almost impossible to go through life without experiencing some kind of failure. People who do so probably live so cautiously that they go nowhere. Put simply, they’re not real living at all. But, the wonderful thing about failure is that it's entirely up to us to decide how to look at it.

    We can choose to see failure as"the end of the world, "or as proof of just how inadequate we are. Or, we can look at failure as the incredible learning experience that it often is. Every time we fail at something, we can choose to look for the lesson we're meant to learn. These lessons are very important; they're how we grow, and how we keep from making that same mistake again. Failures stop us only if we let them. Failure can also teach us things about ourselves that we would never have learned otherwise.

    For instance, failure can help you discover how strong a person you are. Failing at something can help you discover your truest friends, or help you find unexpected motivation to succeed.

    参考译文:

    人口之毕生几乎不可能不经历某种失败。但是,失败的妙处就在于,总体由我们来决定如何对待它。

    咱可以选择将破产看作是世界末日。或者像往常一样,把她看作令人难以置信的读书经历。每当我们在某件事上功亏一篑时,咱会选择寻找应学习之训诫。那些教训非常重大;她们教会我们如何成长,如何避免再次犯相同的错误。如果失败阻止我们发展,这就是说唯一的尺度就是咱们允许它的发生。

    失败还可以教会我们认识自己,那是我们在哪里永远无法学习到的。例如,失败可以扶持你发现自己之力量。失败可以扶持你发现最实际的对象,或者帮助你找到预料之外的成功动力。

    【分析】

    一、总述

    问题文章来自于知名网站Mind Tools上一篇名为“Overcoming Fear of FailureFacing Your Fear of Moving Forward”一文。文章略有删减,总词数151词,共3段,10句话。问题难度相当,题目常规,符合英语二翻译历年的问题规律。相似题材的篇章曾经考过,如2010承受力这篇文章。问题贴近生活,完全难度较低,考生可从容应对,少数语句较为抽象,略有难度,下进行分析。

    二、困难句剖析

    1.【原文】But, the wonderful thing about failure is that it's entirely up to us to decide how to look at it.

    【剖析】成本句话易于简单,由主句加上that引导的表语从句构成,表语从句中嵌套这how引导的宾语从句。其中,the wonderful thing about failure 可以知道为失败的妙处be up to sb.表示取决于某人”;it's entirely up to us to decide how to look at it可以知道为总体由我们来决定如何对待它,把无灵主语it译成有灵主语,更符合汉语习惯。

    【散文】但是,失败的妙处就在于,总体由我们来决定如何对待它。

    2.【原文】Or, we can look at failure as the incredible learning experience that it often is.

    【剖析】成本句话由主句和that引导的定语从句构成。其中,look at failure as the learning experience要求注意措辞,incredible是形容词,最广泛的意味是决不能相信的,但也有难以置信的、偌大的、极好的之意;重组语境,翻译成难以置信的较为通顺,所以这半句话可领略为把她看作令人难以置信的读书经历,为避免上下文重复,可将failure译成代词其它

    【散文】或者像往常一样,把她看作令人难以置信的读书经历。

    3.【原文】Failures stop us only if we let them.

    【剖析】成本句由主句和only if引导的尺度状语构成,only if基本的涵义为只要……就,是不是在……的时节,只有的意味,也有除了的意义。成本句考点之一在于状语从句翻译时要求前置,那个在于选取only if符合语境的涵义。

    【散文】除非我们允许失败的发生,否则失败无法阻挡我们发展。

    46. Directions:

    Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

    Section IV Writing

    Part A

    47. Directions:

    Part B

    48. Directions:

    Write an essay based on the chart below. In your writing, you should

    1) interpret the chart, and

    2) give your comments.

    You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

    20191221日下午,考研英语落下帷幕。纵观英语二试卷,完全来看比较容易。帅波先生给大家解析一下英语二之大作文。此次英语二大作文考查的是饼状图,回顾过去英语二10年考试中,5年考查的是柱状图,3年考查的是饼状图,1年考查得失线形图,1年考查的是表格。可以看到柱状图和饼状图考查最频繁。此次考查的饼状图的专题仍然是关于大学生的专题。回顾过去10年考试中,有3年考查了与留学生有关的专题,暌违是2013年考查大学生兼职情况,2016年考查某大学学生旅游目的调查,2019年考查某大学本科毕业生毕业去向统计。当年考查的是某大学学生使用手机的目的调查。

    成本篇英语二大作文的布局要分三段来写:第一段描述图表,第二段分析原因,第三段给出结论、趋势预测及建议。第一段描述图表要着眼全面,不得遗漏有用信息。其中用手机学习之占第一比例,占59.5%,可以用这个句型来写:…take(s) a lion’s share, accounting for 59.5%,其余用手机的目的是打发时间、浏览信息和另外,暌违占到20.5%17%2%,这三者可以放在一起用一个句子来搞定,……occupy 20.5%, 17% and 2% respectively

    第二段分析原因,重要写这个场面之由来,尤其是用手机主要目的的成因。考生可以下这几个地方分析原因:重要,随着经济的升华,全民生存水准提高,几乎每个家长都会给学买一部手机,这一点是前提条件。其次,随着科技之开拓进取,手机给人们带来了太多的方便,尤其是在读书、交流和查阅资料方面。

    第三段写结论、趋势预测和建议。总结可以概括一点,留学生这样利用手机很符合年轻人的性状与时代特点。趋势预测大概说明一下未来几年这边趋势会发生怎样的转移,通常图表中的现象都得以体现出未来一段日子会持续持续一段日子。末了,可以提示年轻人不要沉迷于手机。

    综上,当年的英语二大作文还是比较容易写出,切实做法请看下面的参考范文:



    一段:As is apparently demonstrated in the chart above, we are informed some information concerning college students’ reading intentions with mobile phones in a certain university. To be more specific, with the help of cell phones, the proportions of college students’ spending on study take a lion’s share, accounting for up to 59.5%. Then those who would like to spend more time on goofing, browsing information and others occupy approximately 20%, 17% and 2% respectively.


    二段: There are diverse components contributing to the above trend, but generally speaking, they may put down to the following two aspects. Initially, there is no doubt that recent years have witnessed the rapid development of economy, and people’s living standards have been improved remarkably, as a result of which, an increasing number of parents are likely to buy their children a smart phone, which may provide possibility for students to apply more advanced equipment into study, to the extent that their learning efficiency and reading horizons would be improved. Simultaneously, along with the development of technology and the advancement of the Internet, a growing quantity of college students’ reading habits have been changed because mobile phones would offer more convenience during their study, which should be taken into account.


    三段: Based on the discussion above, a conclusion can be drawn safely that college students’ reading habits adhere to youngsters’ characteristics and comply with the trait of the new era. Given the data above, it is well predicted that this trend as reflected by the pie chart above will continue for a while in the near future. Nevertheless, there are also some potential risks if college students are too addicted to mobile phones; therefore, it is advisable for youngsters to arrange time reasonably during using cell phones.



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